River: " The site chosen for Rome was about 15 miles [24 km] up the Tiber River from the Mediterranean sea. This shows the Tiber was important and was a source of water for the Romans. The Tiber will have an impact on government decisions because if enemies controlled the river they would have to decide their new water source and they would have to decide to use the river as a path to attack enemies to the north. A bad thing about the river the Etruscan's wanted to take over Roman settlement so they might want to use the river as a shortcut to attack Rome. It is also a good thing as it can help with trade to the north like with the Etruscan's. This was also important and impacted the Roman settlement by giving them water so they could make irrigation systems that would help make farming easier.
Peninsula: it was important as it was in the middle of the Mediterranean region. There was sea that covered all three sides and it helped as it worked as a barrier, if the Greeks were to attack or so they would have to take the ocean not land, and if they were to take land it would be harder as they would have to cross the Alps to the north. The bad thing about the ocean it cut of Rome from Africa and northern Arabia, they could use boats and ships but if it were connected it would be a lot more easier to trade. And it also helped the roman settlements can use it as a path to trade with down south. the romans could also use it for irrigation. Government would also need to think about how to trade properly, which ways to trade. and how to attack enemies based on the geography of the peninsula, were to march the army so they don't have to cross mountains and so on.
Apennines Mountains in Italy
Mountains: Mountains were important as they had shielded the italian civilization from Europe if the Europeans were enemies or an enemy was coming to attack on land they would have to take the Alpps which would shield and protect the romans. The Apennines Mountains were also useful as they cut ITtily into two halfs so i they were enemies on the eastern side they would have to take the mountains to get across which would be long and it would be point less, as the mountains protected rome. The Apennines mountains were better and easier to cross and so the people were not isolated into city states they could trade better, they had more rugged and smoother mountains to cross then the Greeks. There hills also helped in farming as there hills had a flat surface on the top that had flat plains that made it better for farming. In addition it had an impact on government decision as the government would have to use strategy to figure out where to deploy their troops, what direction to march tem in so they are not halted by the mountains.
Islands: were helpful as which ever empire controlled them could use them to reseve more higher profit in trade because the Islands were more closer to other civilized nations of Africa and what ever of Europe that was not blocked of. For example the Greeks controlled the eastern side of Sicily which is the island that is located right after the heal like shape in Italy. The rest of the Islands were controlled by the Carthaginians which also ruled northern Africa. So these islands were controlled so they could have been used for trade purposes. A bad thing about these Islands were that there may be more conflict on control of them. This impacts government decision is because the government might decide to use the Islands as a military base, and they might decide to use it in many ways.