Apennine Mountain Range ItALY

Climate of Apennine Mountains

Average rainfall is between 40 and 80 inches. Average temperature is between 32 degrees and 50 degrees Fahrenheit in the cold winters and between 75-95 degrees in the summers. Snowfall is frequent. There are only two seasons, dry and hot summer or cold, humid winter.

Net Primary Productivity

An elevated area must be over 1000 feet to be considered a mountain. The mountain biome typically is less diverse than other biomes due to its altitude, not a lot of species are able to thrive there. Mountain ranges form wherever the tectonic plates of earth crash into each other, causing the ground to raise. The Apennine Mountain range is home to a variety of mammals, bird species, and reptiles. A wide range of plants and unique flower species also reside on the mountain range.

Soil Quality

The soil on the Apennine Mountains is brown podzolic which supports forests and meadows and pastures, because of the amount of rainfall.

Invasive and Endangered Species

Endangered Brown Bears

The brown bear can be found in the Apennines. They are endangered due to threats such as habitat destruction, hunting, poaching, pollution, and habitat fragmentation.

Invasive Species

Solidago Gigantea is a wildflower species native to North America. It can be found throughout Italy. The plant was introduced to Europe about 150 years ago as an ornamental plant.

Animals in the Apennines

Apennine Wolf

The wolf is key in the ecosystem of the mountain range. It is a large predator that keeps the relationship between predator and prey balanced. The wolf has a lean body made for running, and fangs for eating dead prey. They hunt in packs.

Italian Wild Boar

The wild boar has a strong, square body with hooves, that prevent their feet from sinking into the mountain soil and allowing them to trot. The boar has a good sense of smell and sound. They also have a thick coat to keep out external temperatures.

Apennine Chamois

The Chamois are able to take refuge on steep, rocky slopes, where they are safe from predators. The species is also endangered due to human hunting for their meat and fur. 

Plants on the Apennine MountainRange

Sorbus chamaemespilus

This is a shrub can be found on Apennine mountains. The plant is able to grow on elevations up to 8000 feet. The plant can be distinguished by its pink flower with 5 petals.


The plant is grown over Europe and North America. The fruit is edible. The Lingonberry plant is able to stay alive even through cold winters, but does not grow well is hot summers. The plant thrives in some shade, lots of moisture, and acidic soil.

Olive Trees

The olive tree is able to survive in cold climates, and thrives in a moist, neutral soil. The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean, Asia, and Africa.

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