Bio: Albert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Württemberg, Germany, on March 14, 1879.
Juicy: Einstein married his cousin, Elsa Löwenthal after a divorce. In 1921 Einstein received Noble Prize for Physics but he did not win for his Theory of Relativity as it was not completely understood by many. He was actually awarded the prize for his extraordinary explanation of the photoelectric effect.
Contribution: While he had many theories and different researches, one that he is well known for is his works, one being Special Theory of Relativity (1905), and The Evolution of Physics (1938).
Bio: Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy, on the 15th of February 1564, he died on the 8th of January 1642.
Juicy: Famous Galileo quotes include: “In questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual.”
Contribution: Galileo was a ground breaking astronomer, physicist, mathematician, philosopher and inventor. Among his inventions were telescopes, a compass and a thermometer.
Urbain Le Verrier
Bio: Born at Saint-Lô in Normandy on March 11, 1811
Juicy: Leverrier's work was universally acclaimed as one of the outstanding scientific achievements of all time, and he received honors from virtually every country and scientific society in Europe. He embarked on similar but less successful investigations of a slight anomaly in the motion of Mercury which was resolved only in the 20th century through the work of Albert Einstein.
Contribution: The aspect of astronomy with which Leverrier was primarily concerned was celestial mechanics, the mathematical analysis of the planetary motions.
Bio: Born in Germany as Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel, the astronomer was the son of Anna Ilse Moritzen and Issak Herschel. Herschel died in England on Aug. 25, 1822, at the age of 84.
Juicy: On March 13, 1781, Herschel noticed a small object that, over the course of several nights, was slowly moving across the sky. At first he thought he had found a comet, but further observation revealed that the object was a planet. Herschel lobbied to name the new body 'Georgium Sidus', after King George III, but it was eventually named Uranus after the Greek god of the sky. Herschel proposed the name "asteroids" for the large bodies discovered in 1801.
Contribution: He was elected vice president of the newly formed Royal Astronomical Society in 1820 and president the following year.
Bio: Clyde William Tombaugh was born on near Streator, Ill., on Feb. 4, 1906. Tombaugh passed away at his home in Las Cruces, N.M., on Jan. 17, 1997.
Juicy: Unimpressed with store-bought telescopes, Tombaugh constructed his first telescope at the age of 20, grinding the mirrors himself. Over the course of his life, he would build more than 30 telescopes.
Contribution: Although most famous for the discovery of the most controversial body in the solar system, Tombaugh also found a comet, hundreds of asteroids, and several galactic star clusters over the course of his career.
Bio: Born: March 13, 1855, Boston, MA Died: November 12, 1916, Flagstaff, AZ
Juicy: Although none of Lowell's theories ultimately panned out, his enthusiasm provided a significant boost to the public imagination when it came to Mars.
Contribution: His search for Planet X led to the discovery of Pluto, and his construction of Lowell Observatory led to a number of significant scientific findings.
Bio: Born: January 4, 1643, Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, United Kingdom Died: March 20, 1727, Kensington, London, United Kingdom
Juicy: Newton might not have been surprised: In his later life, when asked for an assessment of his achievements, he replied, "I do not know what I may appear to the world; but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself now and then in finding a smoother pebble or prettier shell than ordinary, while the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me."
Contribution: English physicist and mathematician Sir Isaac Newton, most famous for his law of gravitation, was instrumental in the scientific revolution of the 17th century.
Bio: Born: July 23, 1928, Philadelphia, PA Died: December 25, 2016, Princeton, NJ
Juicy: “She went to her room, she cut up paper into a skirt image, and she stuck it on the little person image on the door of the bathroom,” says Bahcall. “She said, ‘There you go; now you have a ladies’ room.’ That’s the type of person Vera is.”
Contribution: Rubin has continued to champion women’s rights to — and rights within — astronomy. She discovered dark matter.
Bio: Born: November 20, 1889, Marshfield, MO Died: September 28, 1953, San Marino, CA
Juicy: Growing up in Missouri, Edwin Hubble’s focus wasn’t on space, but on the sports field. A gifted athlete, he stood out in basketball, football, and baseball. He broke the state record in the high jump and ran track at the University of Chicago. An accomplished boxer, he once knocked out the German heavyweight champion.
Contribution: All that changed, however, on December 30th, 1924, when American astronomer Edwin Hubble announced he had evidence that the Milky Way galaxy was just one of the many galaxies in an ever expanding universe.
Description: The star that is the central body of the solar system, around which the planets revolve and from which they receive light and heat: its mean distance from the earth is about 93 million miles (150 million km), its diameter about 864,000 miles (1.4 million km), and its mass about 330,000 times that of the earth; its period of surface rotation is about 26 days at its equator but longer at higher latitudes.
Even though Venus isn't the closest planet to the sun, it is still the hottest. It has a thick atmosphere full of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide and clouds made of sulfuric acid. The gas traps heat and keeps Venus toasty warm. In fact, it's so hot on Venus, metals like lead would be puddles of melted liquid.
Jupiter is the biggest planet in our solar system. It's similar to a star, but it never got big enough to start burning. It is covered in swirling cloud stripes. It has big storms like the Great Red Spot, which has been going for hundreds of years. Jupiter is a gas giant and doesn't have a solid surface, but it may have a solid inner core about the size of Earth. Jupiter also has rings, but they're too faint to see very well.
Uranus is made of water, methane, and ammonia fluids above a small rocky center. Its atmosphere is made of hydrogen and helium like Jupiter and Saturn, but it also has methane. The methane makes Uranus blue. Uranus also has faint rings. The inner rings are narrow and dark. The outer rings are brightly colored and easier to see. Like Venus, Uranus rotates in the opposite direction as most other planets. And unlike any other planet, Uranus rotates on its side.
Neptune is dark, cold, and very windy. It's the last of the planets in our solar system. It's more than 30 times as far from the sun as Earth is. Neptune is very similar to Uranus. It's made of a thick soup of water, ammonia, and methane over an Earth-sized solid center. Its atmosphere is made of hydrogen, helium, and methane. The methane gives Neptune the same blue color as Uranus. Neptune has six rings, but they're very hard to see.
A moon is defined to be a celestial body that makes an orbit around a planet, including the eight major planets, dwarf planets, and minor planets. A moon may also be referred to as a natural satellite, although to differentiate it from other astronomical bodies orbiting another body, e.g. a planet orbiting a star, the term moon is used exclusively to make a reference to a planet’s natural satellite.