Deep Sky Objects & Much More By: charles cruz

People

Albert Einstein

Bio: Albert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Württemberg, Germany, on March 14, 1879.

Juicy: Einstein married his cousin, Elsa Löwenthal after a divorce. In 1921 Einstein received Noble Prize for Physics but he did not win for his Theory of Relativity as it was not completely understood by many. He was actually awarded the prize for his extraordinary explanation of the photoelectric effect.

Contribution: While he had many theories and different researches, one that he is well known for is his works, one being Special Theory of Relativity (1905), and The Evolution of Physics (1938).

Galileo Galilei

Bio: Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy, on the 15th of February 1564, he died on the 8th of January 1642.

Juicy: Famous Galileo quotes include: “In questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual.”

Contribution: Galileo was a ground breaking astronomer, physicist, mathematician, philosopher and inventor. Among his inventions were telescopes, a compass and a thermometer.

Urbain Le Verrier

Bio: Born at Saint-Lô in Normandy on March 11, 1811

Juicy: Leverrier's work was universally acclaimed as one of the outstanding scientific achievements of all time, and he received honors from virtually every country and scientific society in Europe. He embarked on similar but less successful investigations of a slight anomaly in the motion of Mercury which was resolved only in the 20th century through the work of Albert Einstein.

Contribution: The aspect of astronomy with which Leverrier was primarily concerned was celestial mechanics, the mathematical analysis of the planetary motions.

William Herschel

Bio: Born in Germany as Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel, the astronomer was the son of Anna Ilse Moritzen and Issak Herschel. Herschel died in England on Aug. 25, 1822, at the age of 84.

Juicy: On March 13, 1781, Herschel noticed a small object that, over the course of several nights, was slowly moving across the sky. At first he thought he had found a comet, but further observation revealed that the object was a planet. Herschel lobbied to name the new body 'Georgium Sidus', after King George III, but it was eventually named Uranus after the Greek god of the sky. Herschel proposed the name "asteroids" for the large bodies discovered in 1801.

Contribution: He was elected vice president of the newly formed Royal Astronomical Society in 1820 and president the following year.

Clyde Tombaugh

Bio: Clyde William Tombaugh was born on near Streator, Ill., on Feb. 4, 1906. Tombaugh passed away at his home in Las Cruces, N.M., on Jan. 17, 1997.

Juicy: Unimpressed with store-bought telescopes, Tombaugh constructed his first telescope at the age of 20, grinding the mirrors himself. Over the course of his life, he would build more than 30 telescopes.

Contribution: Although most famous for the discovery of the most controversial body in the solar system, Tombaugh also found a comet, hundreds of asteroids, and several galactic star clusters over the course of his career.

Percival Lowell

Bio: Born: March 13, 1855, Boston, MA Died: November 12, 1916, Flagstaff, AZ

Juicy: Although none of Lowell's theories ultimately panned out, his enthusiasm provided a significant boost to the public imagination when it came to Mars.

Contribution: His search for Planet X led to the discovery of Pluto, and his construction of Lowell Observatory led to a number of significant scientific findings.

Isaac Newton

Bio: Born: January 4, 1643, Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, United Kingdom Died: March 20, 1727, Kensington, London, United Kingdom

Juicy: Newton might not have been surprised: In his later life, when asked for an assessment of his achievements, he replied, "I do not know what I may appear to the world; but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself now and then in finding a smoother pebble or prettier shell than ordinary, while the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me."

Contribution: English physicist and mathematician Sir Isaac Newton, most famous for his law of gravitation, was instrumental in the scientific revolution of the 17th century.

Vera Robin

Bio: Born: July 23, 1928, Philadelphia, PA Died: December 25, 2016, Princeton, NJ

Juicy: “She went to her room, she cut up paper into a skirt image, and she stuck it on the little person image on the door of the bathroom,” says Bahcall. “She said, ‘There you go; now you have a ladies’ room.’ That’s the type of person Vera is.”

Contribution: Rubin has continued to champion women’s rights to — and rights within — astronomy. She discovered dark matter.

Edwin Hubble

Bio: Born: November 20, 1889, Marshfield, MO Died: September 28, 1953, San Marino, CA

Juicy: Growing up in Missouri, Edwin Hubble’s focus wasn’t on space, but on the sports field. A gifted athlete, he stood out in basketball, football, and baseball. He broke the state record in the high jump and ran track at the University of Chicago. An accomplished boxer, he once knocked out the German heavyweight champion.

Contribution: All that changed, however, on December 30th, 1924, when American astronomer Edwin Hubble announced he had evidence that the Milky Way galaxy was just one of the many galaxies in an ever expanding universe.

NOVA

Description: a star that suddenly becomes thousands of times brighter and then gradually fades to its original intensity.

SUPERNOVA

Description: the explosion of a star, possibly caused by gravitational collapse, during which the star's luminosity increases by as much as 20 magnitudes and most of the star's mass is blown away at very high velocity, sometimes leaving behind an extremely dense core.

OPEN CLUSTER

Description: a comparatively young, irregularly shaped group of stars, often numbering up to several hundred, and held together by mutual gravitation; usually found along the central plane of the Milky Way and other galaxies.

GLOBULAR CLUSTER

Description: a comparatively older, spherically symmetrical, compact group of up to a million old stars, held together by mutual gravitation, that are located in the galactic halo and move in giant and highly eccentric orbits around the galactic center.

NEBULA

Description: Also called diffuse nebula. a cloud of interstellar gas and dust.

GALAXY

Description: a large system of stars held together by mutual gravitation and isolated from similar systems by vast regions of space.

QUASAR

Description: one of over a thousand known extragalactic objects, starlike in appearance and having spectra with characteristically large redshifts, that are thought to be the most distant and most luminous objects in the universe.

BLACK HOLE

Description: a theoretical massive object, formed at the beginning of the universe or by the gravitational collapse of a star exploding as a supernova, whose gravitational field is so intense that no electromagnetic radiation can escape.

PULSAR

Description: one of several hundred known celestial objects, generally believed to be rapidly rotating neutron stars, that emit pulses of radiation, especially radio waves, with a high degree of regularity.

BLACK DWARF

A black dwarf is a theoretical stellar remnant, specifically a white dwarf that has cooled sufficiently that it no longer emits significant heat or light.

WHITE DWARF

A small, extremely dense star characterized by high temperature and luminosity.

SUN

Description: The star that is the central body of the solar system, around which the planets revolve and from which they receive light and heat: its mean distance from the earth is about 93 million miles (150 million km), its diameter about 864,000 miles (1.4 million km), and its mass about 330,000 times that of the earth; its period of surface rotation is about 26 days at its equator but longer at higher latitudes.

Solar Flare: a brief eruption of intense high-energy radiation from the sun's surface, associated with sunspots and causing electromagnetic disturbances on the earth, as with radio frequency communications and power line transmissions.

Solar Prominence: A solar prominence (also known as a filament when viewed against the solar disk) is a large, bright feature extending outward from the Sun's surface.

Sun Spot: Sunspots are darker, cooler areas on the surface of the sun in a region called the photosphere.

Solar Wind: The solar wind streams plasma and particles from the sun out into space. Though the wind is constant, its properties aren't.

AURORAS

Auroras: Frequently there are beautiful light shows in the sky. These lights are called auroras.

MERCURY

Mercury is the smallest planet in our solar system. It’s just a little bigger than Earth’s moon. It is the closest planet to the sun, but it’s actually not the hottest. Venus is hotter.

VENUS

Even though Venus isn't the closest planet to the sun, it is still the hottest. It has a thick atmosphere full of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide and clouds made of sulfuric acid. The gas traps heat and keeps Venus toasty warm. In fact, it's so hot on Venus, metals like lead would be puddles of melted liquid.

MARS

Mars is a cold desert world. It is half the size of Earth. Mars is sometimes called the Red Planet. It's red because of rusty iron in the ground.

JUPITER

Jupiter is the biggest planet in our solar system. It's similar to a star, but it never got big enough to start burning. It is covered in swirling cloud stripes. It has big storms like the Great Red Spot, which has been going for hundreds of years. Jupiter is a gas giant and doesn't have a solid surface, but it may have a solid inner core about the size of Earth. Jupiter also has rings, but they're too faint to see very well.

SATURN

Saturn isn’t the only planet to have rings, but it definitely has the most beautiful ones. The rings we see are made of groups of tiny ringlets that surround Saturn. They’re made of chunks of ice and rock. Like Jupiter, Saturn is mostly a ball of hydrogen and helium.

URANUS

Uranus is made of water, methane, and ammonia fluids above a small rocky center. Its atmosphere is made of hydrogen and helium like Jupiter and Saturn, but it also has methane. The methane makes Uranus blue. Uranus also has faint rings. The inner rings are narrow and dark. The outer rings are brightly colored and easier to see. Like Venus, Uranus rotates in the opposite direction as most other planets. And unlike any other planet, Uranus rotates on its side.

NEPTUNE

Neptune is dark, cold, and very windy. It's the last of the planets in our solar system. It's more than 30 times as far from the sun as Earth is. Neptune is very similar to Uranus. It's made of a thick soup of water, ammonia, and methane over an Earth-sized solid center. Its atmosphere is made of hydrogen, helium, and methane. The methane gives Neptune the same blue color as Uranus. Neptune has six rings, but they're very hard to see.

PLUTO

Pluto is a dwarf planet that lies in the Kuiper Belt. It's an area full of icy bodies and other dwarf planets at the edge of our solar system. Because Pluto is the biggest object in this region, some call it "King of the Kuiper Belt."

COMETS

Comets are often referred to as "dirty snowballs." They are left over from the formation of stars and planets.

OORT CLOUD

The Oort Cloud is an extended shell of icy objects that exist in the outermost reaches of the solar system. It is named after astronomer Jan Oort, who first theorised its existence.

ASTEROID BELT

The vast majority of asteroids in the solar system are found in a region of the solar system out beyond Mars. They form the Asteroid Belt. Others orbit in near-Earth space and a few migrate or are thrown out to the outer solar system by gravitational interactions.

METEORITES

Most of the objects come from asteroids, which are objects made of various types of rock and have existed since the origin of the solar system. A small rocky or metallic chunk of material that travels through space is called a meteoroid.

MOONS

A moon is defined to be a celestial body that makes an orbit around a planet, including the eight major planets, dwarf planets, and minor planets. A moon may also be referred to as a natural satellite, although to differentiate it from other astronomical bodies orbiting another body, e.g. a planet orbiting a star, the term moon is used exclusively to make a reference to a planet’s natural satellite.

Definitions:

apparent magnitude: Astronomers use the term apparent magnitude to describe how bright an object appears in the sky from Earth.

absolute magnitude: Absolute magnitude is a concept that was invented after apparent magnitude when astronomers needed a way to compare the intrinsic, or absolute brightness of celestial objects.

eclipsing variable star: A variable star whose change in luminosity is caused by two or more stars in a binary or multiple system eclipsing each other rather than by any intrinsic property of the star itself. The period of variation coincides with the orbital period of the system and can range from a few minutes to several years.

variable star: variable stars are stars that change brightness. The brightness changes of these stars can range from a thousandth of a magnitude to as much as twenty magnitudes over periods of a fraction of a second to years, depending on the type of variable star.

light year: A light-year is how astronomers measure distance in space. It’s defined by how far a beam of light travels in one year – a distance of six trillion miles.

astronomical unit: Astronomers use astronomical units – or AU – to describe solar system distances. Also, mean distances in AU to prominent solar system objects.

event horizon: Event horizon, boundary marking the limits of a black hole. At the event horizon, the escape velocity is equal to the speed of light. Since general relativity states that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light, nothing inside the event horizon can ever cross the boundary and escape beyond it, including light. Thus, nothing that enters a black hole can get out or can be observed from outside the event horizon.

electromagnetic spectrum: The electromagnetic spectrum describes all the wavelengths of light. From dark nebulae to exploding stars, it reveals an otherwise invisible universe.

ROYGBIV: The order of colors. Red, Yellow, Orange, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet.

dark matter: More is unknown than is known. We know how much dark energy there is because we know how it affects the universe's expansion. Other than that, it is a complete mystery.

Weird: 5 Slides :3

There are thousands of other planets out there.

Fact #1

We have eight planets in our Solar System. However, outside of our Solar System there are thousands of other planets. The extra-solar planets or exo-planets are in orbit around another star. So far we have almost 1800 confirmed new worlds, with another 3000 awaiting confirmation. Astronomers are looking to a star’s goldilocks zone for planets that may be habitable, just like the Earth. The majority of planets discovered so far are hot gas giant planets.

Fact #2

One million Earths can fit inside the Sun. Ancient astronomers once believed the Earth was at the centre of the Universe but now we know that the Sun is at the centre of our Solar System and our planets orbit the Sun. The Sun makes up 99.8% of the entire mass of the whole Solar System. One million Earths would be needed to be the same size as the Sun.

Fact #3

Space is not that far away. Space officially begins at the universal marker of the Karman Line. This invisible boundary is 100km above the Earth. In theory if you could drive your car upwards, you could be in space in less than hour.

Fact #4

You can cry in space but your tears don’t fall. On-board the International Space Station, water floats like bubbles or spheres. However the water will cling to a surface until it is dislodged. This means that tears start to form bubbles around your eyes as the weightless environment is not causing your tears to fall. This sounds really cool but it can be dangerous. ESA astronaut Luca Parmitano suffered a space suit leak whilst on a spacewalk. The water leaked into his helmet covered his eyes and ears, but thankfully he made it back into the Space Station unharmed, but if not he could have drowned in space.

Fact #5

The North Star will change…eventually. The North Star used for navigation, a steady point in the night sky will change, however not in our lifetime. The Earth is rotating like a spinning top and therefore the pole of our planet wobbles. Currently it points to Polaris but in the year 13727 our Pole Star will be the star Vega, in the constellation of Lyra. Vega was the also North Star in 12000BCE.

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Credits:

Created with images by skeeze - "comet comet mcnaught butler" • janeb13 - "albert einstein 1921 sad look" • tonynetone - "Galileo" • skeeze - "milky way andromeda stars" • skyseeker - "Sun." • geckzilla - "NGC 6814" • Megyarsh - "Tears are tasteless" • andyspictures - "Orion Nebula"

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