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向全球提供新冠检测的华大基因深度参与中共国军民融合 【中英对照翻译】

新闻来源:REUTERS《路透社》| 作者:Kirsty Needham| 发布时间:January, 2021 /2021年1月日

翻译/简评:wmorpho |校对/审核:万人往 |Page:小雨

简评:

2016年,习近平开始推动一项整合中共国民用和军事研究的战略,本文通过揭露民营企业华大基因与中共国解放军军事武器研究的深度合作关系,向世界展示中共国所谓的军民融合的实质,那就是利用民营企业来获得中共国解放军军事武器研究所需的技术与数据。

例如,自新冠状病毒大流行爆发以来,华大基因已在中共国境外销售了数百万套COVID-19测试盒,其中包括欧洲、澳大利亚和美国。在获利的同时,华大基因为中共国军事研究收集外国基因数据。四名华大基因研究人员附属于中共国的一家军事机构——国防科技大学。国防科技大学被列入危害国家安全的黑名单,因为它的天河2号超级计算机(世界上功能最强大的计算机之一)被用于模拟核爆炸。

种种迹象表明,中共国根本不存在民营企业,所谓的民营企业只是他们军事机构的一个外包装,用来欺骗世界以获得它所需要的技术与资源。新美国安全智囊中心的高级研究员艾尔莎•卡尼亚(Elsa Kania)向美国国会委员会提供了证词。她告诉路透社,中共国军方正在推动脑科学、基因编辑和人工基因组创建的研究并应用在未来的生物武器中。由美国政府任命的、前谷歌首席执行总裁埃里克•施密特(Eric Schmidt)担任主席的人工智能技术行业小组在10月发出警报,警告说中共国用国家财力支持中共国的生物技术行业的研究与发展,旨在收集生物数据用于中共解放军的潜在的生物军事应用。

COVID-19肆虐大地已经有一年有余。正像我们英雄科学家闫丽梦博士指出的,它不是简单的病毒,而是中共国制造的生物武器,不仅危害人的生命与健康,还伤害了人际关系,在人的心灵投下了挥之不去的重重阴影。病毒造成的次级伤害远超病毒本身,如果不彻底解决CCP这个真正的毒瘤,世界将永无宁日!

原文翻译:

Exclusive: China gene firm providing worldwide COVID tests worked with Chinese military

独家:提供全球COVID测试的中共国基因公司与中共国军方合作

By Kirsty Needham | 作者:柯斯蒂•尼德汉

JANUARY 30, 2021/4:08 AM/UPDATED 3 DAYS AGO

2021年1月30日/早上4:08/3天前更新

SYDNEY (Reuters) - BGI Group, the world’s largest genomics company, has worked with China’s military on research that ranges from mass testing for respiratory pathogens to brain science, a Reuters review of research, patent filings and other documents has found.

悉尼(路透社) - 全球最大的基因组学公司华大基因集团(BGI Group)与中共国军方合作,已开展了大范围的从呼吸道病原体到脑科学的大规模检测的研究,路透社已找到了华大基因集团的研究、专利申请和其他文件的评论。

FILE PHOTO: A technician works at a genetic testing laboratory of BGI, formerly known as Beijing Genomics Institute, in Kunming, Yunnan province, China December 26, 2018. REUTERS/Stringer | 文件照片:2018年12月26日,一名技术人员在中国云南省昆明市华大基因的基因检测实验室(原名北京基因组研究所)工作。路透社/斯金格

The review, of more than 40 publicly available documents and research papers in Chinese and English, shows BGI’s links to the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) include research with China’s top military supercomputing experts. The extent of those links has not previously been reported.

这份由40多份中英文公开文件和研究论文组成的评论显示了华大基因与解放军(PLA)的合作关系,其中包括与中共国顶尖军事超级计算专家的合作研究。这些华大基因与中共军方合作关系的范筹以前没有被报导过。

BGI has sold millions of COVID-19 test kits outside China since the outbreak of the new coronavirus pandemic, including to Europe, Australia and the United States. Shares of BGI Genomics Co, the company’s subsidiary listed on the Shenzhen stock exchange, have doubled in price over the past 12 months, giving it a market value of about $9 billion.

自新冠状病毒大流行爆发以来,华大基因集团已在中共国境外销售了数百万套COVID-19测试盒,其中包括销往欧洲、澳大利亚和美国。该公司在深圳证券交易所上市的子公司华大基因在过去的12个月中股价上涨了一倍,现市值约为90亿美元。

But top U.S. security officials have warned American labs against using Chinese tests because of concern China was seeking to gather foreign genetic data for its own research. BGI has denied that.

但是美国高级安全官员警告美国实验室不要使用中共国的测试盒,因为担心中共国为自己的研究收集外国基因数据。华大基因否认了这一点。

The documents reviewed by Reuters neither contradict nor support that U.S. suspicion. Still, the material shows that the links between the Chinese military and BGI run deeper than previously understood, illustrating how China has moved to integrate private technology companies into military-related research under President Xi Jinping.

路透社审查的文件与美国高级安全官员的怀疑既不矛盾也没有表示认同。尽管如此,这些资料显示,中共国军方与华大基因之间的关系比以前公众了解的要深得多,这说明了中共国是如何在习近平主席领导下将私营科技公司纳入军事相关研究的。

The U.S. government has recently been warned by an expert panel that adversary countries and non-state actors might find and target genetic weaknesses in the U.S. population and a competitor such as China could use genetics to augment the strength of its own military personnel.

美国政府最近被一个专家小组警告说,敌对国家和非国家行为者可能会找出美国人的遗传弱点并加以攻击,像中共国这样的竞争对手可能利用遗传基因工程来增强自己军事人员的体能。

BGI has worked on PLA projects seeking to make members of the ethnic Han Chinese majority less susceptible to altitude sickness, Reuters found, genetic research that would benefit soldiers in some border areas.

路透社发现,华大基因参与了中共解放军的项目,旨在使中国汉族人减少对高原反应的影响,这项遗传学研究将使某些边境地区的士兵受益。

Elsa Kania, an adjunct senior fellow at the Center for a New American Security think tank, who has provided testimony to U.S. Congressional committees, told Reuters that China’s military has pushed research on brain science, gene editing and the creation of artificial genomes that could have an application in future bioweapons. She added that such weapons are not currently technically feasible.

新美国安全智囊中心的高级研究员艾尔莎•卡尼亚(Elsa Kania)向美国国会委员会提供了证词。她告诉路透社,中共国军方正在推动脑科学、基因编辑和人工基因组创建的研究并应用在未来的生物武器中。她补充说,这种武器目前在技术上还不可行。

BGI’s pattern of collaboration with the Chinese military was a “reasonable concern to raise” for U.S. officials, said Kania.

卡尼亚说,华大基因与中共国军方的合作模式对美国官员来说是一个“值得关注的问题”。

In response to Reuters’ questions, BGI said it adheres to international standards and Chinese laws related to open science, data sharing and genomic research. It said its collaboration with military researchers was for academic purposes only.

在回答路透社的问题时,华大基因表示,他们遵守科学开放、数据共享和基因组研究有关的国际标准和中共国法律。华大基因说,他们与中共军事研究人员的合作仅出于学术目的。

“BGI strongly rejects any accusations about links with the PLA, particularly in relation to our COVID-19 test kits,” it said in a statement.

华大基因在一份声明中说:“华大基因坚决反对任何有关我们与解放军合作关系的指控,特别是有关我们的COVID-19测试套件的指控。”

China’s defence ministry did not respond to requests for comment.

中共国国防部没有回应置评的请求。

‘ENHANCE’ SOLDIER STRENGTH

“增强”士兵体能

Chinese technology companies have come under increasing scrutiny by the United States and were subject to mounting restrictions under the administration of Donald Trump. In November, the Department of Commerce proposed a rule to add gene editing software to the U.S. export control list, saying it could be used to create biological weapons. Officials in the new administration of President Joe Biden have signalled a continued tough approach to what they see as a rising threat from Beijing.

中共国科技公司受到美国越来越多的审查,在唐纳德•川普(Donald Trump)政府时期受到越来越多的限制。美国商务部在去年11月提出了一项法规,要求将基因编辑软件添加到美国出口管制清单中,声称该软件可以用于制造生物武器。新任总统拜登(Joe Biden)的政府官员已经表示,他们将继续采取强硬措施,以应对北京方面日益增加的威胁。

A technology industry panel on artificial intelligence, appointed by the U.S. government and chaired by former Google Chief Executive Eric Schmidt, raised the alarm in October about China’s financial support for its biotechnology sector, its advantages in collecting biological data, and the PLA’s interest in potential military applications.

由美国政府任命的、前谷歌首席执行总裁埃里克•施密特(Eric Schmidt)担任主席的人工智能技术行业小组在10月发出警报,警告说中共国用国家财力支持中共国的生物技术行业的研究与发展,旨在收集生物数据用于中共解放军的潜在的生物军事应用。

The panel, which will deliver its final report in March, warned about adversaries using artificial intelligence to identify genetic weaknesses in a population and engineering pathogens to exploit them, and genetic research designed to enhance soldiers’ mental or physical strength.

该小组将在3月发表最终报告,并警告说,对手正使用人工智能来识别人口中的遗传弱点,并利用这些弱点来改造病原体,还会进行用来增强士兵智力或体力的基因研究。

The panel recommended that the U.S. government “take a more aggressive public posture regarding BGI,” citing national security risks posed by the company’s links to the Chinese government and its trove of genomic data.

专家小组建议美国政府“对华大基因应采取更为激烈的公开表态”,理由是该公司与中共国政府的关系以及其基因组数据的构成带来了国家安全风险。

The U.S. Department of State did not immediately respond to a request for comment on Reuters’ findings.

美国国务院没有立即回应对路透社调查结果发表评论的要求。

In response to Reuters’ questions, China’s foreign ministry said the U.S. government had “wantonly misinterpreted and smeared China’s military-civil fusion policy,” and was imposing unreasonable sanctions that would hamper research.

在回答路透社的问题时,中共国外交部表示,美国政府“在某种程度上错误地解读了中共国的军民融合政策,并给其抹上了污点”,并正在实施不合理的制裁措施,这将妨碍基因科技研究。

“China’s military-civil fusion policy is aimed at effectively mobilizing military and civilian resources, coordinating socio-economic growth and national defense development, and benefiting the public with scientific and technological progress. This policy is above board and beyond reproach,” the ministry said in a statement to Reuters.

中共国外交部在给路透社的一份声明中说:“中共国的军民融合政策旨在有效地利用军事和民用资源,协调社会经济增长和国防发展,并通过科学技术进步使公众受益。这项政策是无可厚非的,是无可非议的。”

It added that this was “customary international practice” and said the U.S. government had effectively pursued military-civil fusion for more than 100 years.

中共国外交部补充说,这是“国际惯例”,并说美国的军民融合的实施已有100多年了。

‘KEY PROJECTS’

“关键项目”

BGI Group, based in Shenzhen, has grown quickly by selling genetic sequencing services to universities and health systems around the world and amassing a large DNA databank. It created China’s first cloned pig in 2010.

总部位于深圳的华大基因集团通过向世界各地的大学和卫生系统出售基因测序服务迅速壮大发展,并积累了庞大的DNA数据库。他们在2010年生产了中共国第一只克隆猪。

One science paper authored by BGI founders Yang Huanming and Wang Jian along with the PLA’s Key Laboratory of High Altitude Medicine and the Third Military Medical University focused on experiments with the brains of monkeys suffering altitude sickness.

华大基因创始人杨焕明和王健、解放军高空医学重点实验室和第三军医大学共同撰写的一篇科学论文着重于对患有高原反应的猴子的大脑进行的实验。

The study, published in January 2020, stated that it was funded as one of the “key projects of military science and technology” by the PLA. A decade ago, the military university’s research sought to identify genes related to altitude sickness so the PLA could screen for susceptible soldiers. The latest research focused on how drugs interacting with genes could potentially protect a person from brain injury.

这项研究论文于2020年1月发表,并指出是解放军资助的“军事科学技术重点项目”之一。十年前,军事大学的研究试图鉴定与高原反应有关的基因,用来筛选有这方面弱点的中共解放军士兵。最新的研究集中在如何用药物与基因的相互作用来有效地保护中共解放军士兵在高原免受脑损伤。

An earlier 2017 study designed by BGI’s Wang and published in conjunction with a PLA research centre in Xinjiang looked at the effect of rapid mountain ascent on the bodies of “young, healthy men.”

2017年早些时候,由华大基因的王健设计的、与新疆解放军研究中心联合发表的一项研究是有关在高原快速攀登山峰对“年轻健康的男性”身体的影响。

China has the world’s longest highland border, which includes its border with India, where fighting broke out between the two countries’ troops in 2020. A 2018 paper by the same PLA laboratory stated that “high altitude disease is the main reason for reduced combat effectiveness and health damage to soldiers at high altitudes and influences the results of war.”

中共国拥有世界上最长的高原边界,其中包括与印度的边界。2020年,两国部队在那里爆发了战斗。同一家解放军实验室在2018年发表的一篇论文指出:“在高原作战,高原疾病是战斗力下降的主要原因,并且对士兵的健康会造成损害,进而影响战争结果。”

Reuters was unable to contact Yang and Wang. BGI said its research collaboration with the PLA lab and the Third Military Medical University, where Yang has been a professor for almost two decades, was “for academic purposes only.”

路透社无法联系到杨焕明和王健。华大基因表示,他们与解放军实验室和第三军医大学的研究合作“仅出于学术目的”,杨焕明在第三军医大学担任教授已有近二十年的时间。

SEQUENCING COVID

COVID的基因序列

BGI jointly holds a dozen patents for tests that screen for genomes linked to disease with the military university, the PLA’s Academy of Military Medical Science, which is the top medical research institute of the PLA, and PLA hospitals.

华大基因与军事大学、中共国人民解放军最高医学研究所——中国人民解放军军事医学科学院共同拥有十多项专利,用于筛选与疾病相关的基因组。

One patent was granted in 2015 to BGI and the Academy of Military Medical Science for a low-cost test kit to detect respiratory pathogens, including SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) and coronaviruses.

2015年,华大基因和军事医学科学院获得了一项专利,该专利是一种低成本的检测试剂盒,用于检测呼吸道病原体,包括SARS(严重急性呼吸道综合症)和冠状病毒。

BGI’s current chief infectious disease scientist, Chen Weijun, is listed as an inventor on the patent documents. Chen was among the first scientists to sequence COVID-19, taking samples from a military hospital in Wuhan, according to sequence data later shared internationally.

华大基因现任首席传染病科学家陈卫军在专利文件中被列为发明人。根据后来在国际上共享的序列数据,陈卫军是最早对COVID-19进行测序的科学家之一,他们从武汉的一家军事医院采集了样本。

Chen is listed as affiliated with the Academy of Military Medical Science in three science papers reviewed by Reuters.In response to Reuters’ questions, BGI said in a statement that Chen has not been affiliated with the PLA’s Academy of Military Medical Science since 2012. Chen did not respond to a request for comment.

在路透社审阅的三篇科学论文中,陈卫军被列为附属于军事医学科学院。为了回应路透社的质询,华大基因在一份声明中说,自2012年以来,陈卫军已不属于解放军军事医学科学院。陈卫军没有回应置评请求。

BGI’s COVID-19 test kit did not use the method jointly patented with the PLA, the company said in the statement.

该公司在声明中说,华大基因的COVID-19测试套件未使用与中共解放军共同获得专利的方法。

Four BGI researchers have also been jointly affiliated with another military institution, the National University of Defence Technology (NUDT), according to publicly available science and conference papers reviewed by Reuters. Hunan-based NUDT is under the direct leadership of China’s Central Military Commission, the top-level body that steers the Chinese military and is headed by Xi.

路透社审阅的公开发表的科学和会议论文显示,四名华大基因研究人员附属于另一家军事机构,即国防科技大学(NUDT)。位于湖南的国防科技大学是归中共国中央军事委员会直接领导的。中央军委是领导中共国军队的最高机构,直接由习近平领导。

The NUDT is on a U.S. blacklist as a threat to national security because its Tianhe-2 supercomputer - one of the world’s most powerful - is used to simulate nuclear explosions, according to a Department of Commerce listing. That listing restricts U.S. companies from supplying NUDT with technology.

根据美国商务部的清单,国防科技大学被列入危害国家安全的黑名单,因为它的天河2号超级计算机(世界上功能最强大的计算机之一)被用于模拟核爆炸。该黑名单限制美国公司向国防科技大学提供技术交流。

One researcher, Peng Shaoliang, was instrumental in developing software to speed up BGI’s sequencing of human genomes using supercomputing developed by NUDT.

彭绍亮,一位研究员,对于应用国防科技大学开发的超级计算技术来加快华大基因对人类基因组测序的开发起到了重要作用。

Peng has won military awards for his work. He is a member of an expert group advising the Central Military Commission’s Science and Technology Commission, set up in 2016 when Xi began promoting a strategy to integrate China’s civilian and military research.

彭绍亮因此赢得了军事奖章。他是为中央军事委员会科学技术委员会提供咨询服务的专家组成员,该委员会于2016年成立,那一年习近平开始推动一项整合中共国民用和军事研究的战略。

Patent applications in 2020 show Peng is also a member of the PLA’s Institute of Military Medicine. Liao Xiangke, the head of the NUDT’s supercomputer programme and a major general in the PLA, has published seven scientific papers either co-authored with BGI researchers or crediting them for providing data and source code.

彭绍亮在2020年的专利申请显示,他还是解放军军事医学研究所的成员。国防科技大学超级计算机程序负责人、解放军少将廖湘科发表了七篇科学论文,这些论文要么是与华大基因研究人员合著的,要么就是用华大基因提供的数据和源代码而著的。

BGI said in a statement to Reuters that Peng and Liao “were two collaborators of BGI for the project at the time for the purpose of academic exchange only. Since the project ended BGI has no more affiliation with them.”

华大基因在给路透社的一份声明中说,彭绍亮和廖湘科“当时是华大基因的两个合作者,仅出于学术交流的目的。自项目结束以来,华大基因不再与他们有任何隶属关系。”

Peng and Liao did not respond to requests for comment.

彭绍亮和廖湘科未回应置评请求。

BGI said it uses Tianhe-2 on a commercial basis, as well as other supercomputing platforms, to speed up research. The papers it wrote with the NUDT were for academic purposes only, it said, and were open for public reference, while the programmes themselves have ended.

华大基因表示,“天河2号”是用于商业目的,其他超级计算平台也只是用来加速项目研究。华大基因说,华大基因与国防科技大学撰写的论文仅用于学术目的,并且在研究结束后可供公众参考。

Tianhe-2 has also been used to solve pharmaceutical, cryptology, engineering and climate problems that have no military application, the company said.

该公司表示,“天河2号”还用于解决没有军事应用的制药、密码学、工程学和气候问题。

🔗原文链接

编辑:【英国伦敦喜庄园编辑部】Edited by:【Himalaya London Club UK】