Transverse Waves : A wave, is a rhythmic disturbance that carries energy through matter and space. A wave pulse is simply a single bump or disturbance that travels through the medium. Basically, a Transverse Wave is the wave that vibrates in a perpendicular direction of the wave of motion.
Longitudinal & Surface Waves : The disturbance in the same direction (parallel) to the direction of wave. Surface waves have characteristics of both transverse and longitudinal waves.
Refraction: Refraction is the change in direction of waves that occurs when waves travel from one medium to another. Refraction is also always accompanied by a wavelength and speed change.
Compression: Instead of crests and troughs, longitudinal waves have compressions and rarefactions. A compression is a region in a longitudinal wave where the particles are closest together.