Breast Cancer By Sarah Koehler

BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the genes that become mutated to cause breast cancer. They act as tumor suppressor genes that help control cell growth. These genes produce the protein breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein isoform 2.

Breast cancer traces all the way back to Ancient Egypt around 1600 BC. It was discovered when an ancient text was discovered in 1860 showing ulcers and tumors found in the breast.

Women have more of a chance to develop breast cancer than men do, but it is still possible for men to develop breast cancer. In the United States 1 in every 993 people will develop breast cancer. Worldwide 1 in every 4,118 people will develop breast cancer.

There are many symptoms of breast cancer. Symptoms can include a lump or thickening in the breast area, a change in size or shape, dimple or puckering of the skin, fluid coming from the nipple, nipple turned inward, and dimples that resemble the skin of an orange.

Doctors have many ways to diagnose breast cancer. One of the ways is if someone were to have a history of breast cancer in their family they can be regularly screened to check for the cancer. Doctors can check a patient's blood to find the mutated gene. People could have a clinical breast exam in which a doctor would check for lumps.

Commonly women will have a mammogram done which is a x-ray of the breast.

Another way for diagnosis is to have an ultrasound done. There is a magnetic resonance imaging which sends magnetic and radio waves through the body to form an image. Finally, people can get a biopsy which removes cells and then a doctor will look at them under a microscope.

Breast cancer can be treated in a few ways. One of the most common ways is to have surgery to remove the cancer from the breasts. There is radiation therapy which uses high energy x-rays to kill off the cancer cells and keep them from coming back. Chemotherapy uses drugs that will kill off the cells or stop them from dividing. Hormone therapy gets rid of hormones or blocks the actions of the hormones so the cells will stop dividing. Targeted therapy is to kill off the cancer cells without harming the healthy cells.

The prognosis for the patient is that 90 of 100 people diagnosed with breast cancer will still be living in 5 years.

Breast cancer is autosomal and dominant. 5-10% of people who develop breast cancer occurred from inheriting it. When women inherit the breast cancer gene they commonly will have broken or deformed chromosomes and a greater chance of uncontrolled cell growth resulting in cancer. When men inherit the gene they also have a greater risk of developing cancer.

In 2016, doctors found DNA methylation which is gene ZNF154 which can be found in 15 tumor types and 13 more organs including breast cancer. The methylation leaves marks that can be found. The doctors made a program that can detect the methylation marks in the bloodstream. Being able to find those marks in the bloodstream can speed up the process of finding the cancer. This will help to catch the cancer early and to be able to get rid of it.

Works Cited

“Al Software Could Make Early Breast Cancer Detection Easier.” Consumer Affairs, Consumers Unified, 2017, Accessed 4 Feb. 2017.

“Breast Cancer.” University of Utah Health Care, Huntsman Cancer Institute University of Utah, 2016, Accessed 1 Feb. 2017.

“Breast Cancer Statistics.” Susan G. Komen, Susan G Komen, 2017, Accessed 5 Feb. 2017.

“Breast Cancer Survival Rates.” American Cancer Society, 2017, Accessed 5 Feb. 2017.

“Integris Breast Cancer Services in Oklahoma.” Integris, Integris Health, 2017, Accessed 5 Feb. 2017.

“Multifactorial Disorders.” Genetic Science Learning Center, University of Utah, 2017, Accessed 1 Feb. 2017.

“NIH Researchers Identify Striking Genomic Signature Shared by Five Types of Cancer.” National Human Genome Research Institute, 2017, Accessed 5 Feb. 2017.

Suchy, Sara. “A Brief History of Breast Cancer.” Health Central, Remedy Health Media, 2015, Accessed 5 Feb. 2017.

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