An outlook on "Leadership Without Easy Answers."
Values in leadership arouses passion. We often talk about a crisis ineadership and then say leadership is value-free. We have to take sides. Leadership is a normative concept because implicit in people's notions of leadership are images of a social contract. In the military the term leadership commonly refers to people in positions of command who show the way.
Hidden Values in Theories of Leadership.
The first theory of leadership emerged from the nineteenth century notion that history is the story of great men and then impact on society. Thomas Carlyle crystallized this view in his 1841 volume On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History. Carlyle have examined the personality characteristics of "great men," positing that the rise to power is rooted in a "heroic" set of personal talents, skills, or physical characteristics.
To lead means to be in charge or command of. To mislead means to cause someone to have the wrong idea or impression on someone or something. We can learn and manage our learning. We are often compared to animals and their way of leading.
The Strategic Defense Initiative
On March 23, 1983, President Tonald Raegan announced a bold new plan to develop a technological shield that would protect the united states from nuclear attack. The Strategic Defense Initiative, SDI- commonly called "Star Wars", was intended to make nuclear weapons "impotent and obsolete."
In the video, you learned a little more about what was the "Star Wars."
In this video, you got a better understanding of the background of the "Star Wars."
Our systems of authority serve vital social functions. Without comprehending these functions, once can no more exercise leadership than Boeing Aircraft can design airplanes and ignore gravity. Some of us may hate or distrust authority, but I doubt that we can do without some form of it. Authority misuse their powers which causes us to hate them.
Functions of Dominance in Primate Socities
According to observers such as George Schiller and Dian Fossey, the silverbackcprovides the group with an obvious focal point of attention. The silverback provides the focal point that orients others to their place in the line while traveling for food. When the band moves in single file through the forest, he walks in front, followed by the mother with the youngest children, then a mixture of mothers with older children adjacent to other adult males, followed by other females and males, and at the tail end, an adult male. When they feed, members of the group spread out, but during rest periods they lfteb cluster near the silverback.
Even at the age of four, youngsters generate systems of stratification. A study of preschool children in Virginia showed that those who dominated the attention of others also won the most struggles over access to toys. Observers attached the label "high-rankings to these dominant children. Dominant children serve other functions in addition to orientation. In a study of first-graders playing dodgeball, the child who appeared most skillful emerged in time as the dominant individual to whom the text of the players looked for organization.
A similar picture emerges in laboratory studies of small adult groups in the United Stages. Three generalizations emerge.
- When men and women who do not know one another form a new group and undertake a task, they routinely establish a hierarchy of roles.
- The group often informally selects and authorized one of its own members to chair the group in place of the person designated by the scientist in charge.
- The group looks to its chairperson for certain services.