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中共国利用洗钱漏洞攻击、偷窃美国 【中英对照翻译】

新闻来源:Washington times《华盛顿时报》;作者:Nate Sibley June 28, 2020/ 2020年6月28日

翻译/简评:万人往;校对:Julia Win;Page: 拱卒

简评:

由于经营不善,每年美国都会有一些本土企业濒临破产。而一些中共企业为寻求融资机会,假装被这些要破产的美国企业并购,绕过审查和监管,摇身一变成了美国上市公司,并融到巨额资金。

这种反向并购亦称“买壳上市”。一家非上市公司的股东在投行的帮助下获得一家上市公司的绝对控股权,再由该上市公司反向收购非上市公司的资产和业务,使之成为上市公司的子公司,实现间接上市。壳公司由于业务萎缩,估价较低,需要以此来避免破产或被摘牌,从而实现自己的股权价值。

如果说绕过监管只是为了方便节省时间和成本也还算合法,但是中共很多企业根本就是空壳公司。正如电影《中共式骗局》(The China Hustle)展现的那样,这些空壳公司号称营业额上亿,其实全是假的,厂房里垃圾遍地,连机器都是坏的,就是为了赴美圈钱。

美国现在已经开始立法堵住中共利用空壳公司洗钱的漏洞,中共的假、骗、偷等行为一定会遭受到法律的制裁。

原文:

Money laundering loophole allows China's shell companies to attack and steal from U.S.

洗钱漏洞让中共国空壳公司得以攻击、偷窃美国

America faces a serious, pervasive and anonymous threat to national security. A top Pentagon official recently called it the “biggest concern [and] weakest link” in U.S. defense procurement. U.S. law enforcement and intelligence agencies are routinely stumped by it.

美国面临着严重的、到处渗透的、匿名的国家安全威胁。五角大楼一位高级官员最近称,这是美国国防采购中“最大的担忧和最薄弱的环节”。美国执法和情报机构经常被它难住。

And in the Treasury Department’s most recent strategy for combating terrorist and other illicit financing, it is identified as the top vulnerability in the U.S. financial system and an immediate priority for action.

在财政部打击恐怖主义和其他非法融资的最新战略中,这个问题被确定为美国金融体系的最薄弱环节,当务之急是立即采取行动。

What is this mysterious new threat? In fact, it is a basic money laundering loophole that we have known about for decades: The ability to own and control U.S. shell companies without having to disclose their true ownership.

这个神秘的新威胁是什么?事实上,这是我们几十年前就知道的一个基本的洗钱漏洞:拥有和控制美国空壳公司的能力,而不披露它们的真实所有权。

Drug cartels, terrorists, kleptocrats and everyday fraudsters have long exploited this loophole to facilitate activities that undermine America’s security and prosperity. For example, U.S. shell companies are used for money laundering in transnational corruption cases more often than those of any other country — including notorious tax havens such as Switzerland or the Cayman Islands.

长期以来,贩毒集团、恐怖分子、盗国贼和普通骗子一直在利用这个漏洞为破坏美国安全和繁荣提供便利。例如,在跨国腐败案件中,美国的空壳公司被用于洗钱的次数比其他任何国家都要多,包括臭名昭著的避税天堂瑞士和开曼群岛。

Indeed, experts have sandwiched the United States between those two countries as one of the worst financial secrecy jurisdictions in the world. Yet, in all 50 U.S. states, more personal information is required to obtain a library card than to create a shell company.

事实上,专家们认为美国已经被夹在这两个国家之间,成为世界上金融保密制度最糟糕的国家之一。然而,在美国50个州中,申请图书馆借书证比创建空壳公司需要更多的个人信息。

But the problem assumes a new urgency as U.S. policymakers contemplate a protracted struggle with China. Indeed, it is astonishing that this vulnerability has yet to be addressed in that context, as shell companies routinely play a key role in facilitating espionage, intellectual property theft, cyberattacks, and sanctions evasion by CCP officials and their proxies.

但随着美国政策制定者考虑与中共国长期斗争,这个问题呈现出新的紧迫性。事实上令人惊讶的是,这一漏洞尚未得到解决,空壳公司通常在促进间谍活动、窃取知识产权、网络攻击以及为中共官员及其代理人逃避制裁方面发挥着关键作用。

Opaque corporate networks also propel the broader wave of crime and corruption emanating from China as a byproduct of Communist misrule, including the illegal opioid trade, human trafficking and counterfeit goods. And China’s most prominent political families hypocritically rely on shell companies to conceal their vast private wealth overseas.

不透明的企业网络还推动了源自中共国的更广泛的犯罪和腐败浪潮,包括非法鸦片类药物贸易、人口贩运和假冒商品,这是共产主义暴政的副产品。中共国最显赫的政治家族虚伪地依靠空壳公司来隐藏他们在海外的巨额私人财富。

This is clearly a global problem with strategic implications, but the first step is a modest domestic technocratic reform. The introduction of a U.S. directory of corporate “beneficial ownership” would simply require the owners of U.S. shell companies to disclose who really controls the legal entities being used to move billions of dollars through and within America’s borders each year.

这显然是一个具有战略意义的全球问题,但第一步是在国内进行适度的技术官僚改革。美国公司“实益所有权”工商名录的引入,仅仅要求美国空壳公司的所有者披露谁真正控制着每年在美国境内转移数十亿美元资金的法律实体。

It goes without saying that, without robust verification procedures — which run the risk of burdening innocent business owners — criminals will simply submit false or misleading information. But this forces a choice on the lawyers and incorporation agents they use to set up opaque corporate networks, who are currently not required to ask any awkward questions about their clients’ identities.

不用说,如果没有健全的验证程序——这有可能给无辜的企业主带来负担——犯罪分子只会提供虚假或误导性的信息。但这迫使他们选择律师和公司代理来建立不透明的公司网络,目前他们不需要询问任何关于客户身份的不合适的问题。

And as any law enforcement agent will tell you, the presence of inaccurate information can itself be a powerful clue in the context of broader investigations.

正如任何执法人员都会告诉你的那样,在更广泛的调查背景下,不准确信息的存在本身就是一个强有力的线索。

Yet, the benefits to domestic law enforcement are barely half the story. By joining democratic allies such as the United Kingdom, European Union and New Zealand in tackling shell company abuse, the United States would assume international leadership on setting a new global standard that undermines the CCP’s worldwide assault on the rule of law.

然而,对国内执法部门的好处还不到问题的一半。通过与英国、欧盟和新西兰等民主盟友一起解决空壳公司滥用问题,美国将在制定新的全球标准方面发挥国际领导作用,从而削弱中共在全球范围内对法治的攻击。

This matters because the United States is the overseer of the global reserve currency: If you want to be able to access U.S. dollars, you have to play by its rules. Even an imperfect gesture towards tackling shell company abuse would empower officials from the State, Justice and Treasury Departments to pressure and, if necessary, shut down the unscrupulous jurisdictions that act as conduits for illicit financial flows from China, Russia, Iran, North Korea, Venezuela and other authoritarian adversaries.

这一点很重要,因为美国是全球储备货币的监管者:如果你想获得美元,你就必须遵守它的规则。在处理空壳公司滥用问题上,即便是一个不完美的姿态,也会赋予政府、司法部和财政部官员施压的权力,并在必要时关闭这些肆无忌惮的司法管辖区。这些司法管辖区是中共国、俄罗斯、伊朗、朝鲜、委内瑞拉和其他极权主义敌人非法资金流动的渠道。

This includes the Belt and Road Initiative, which became a conduit for kleptocracy across Eurasia as local elites were seduced by bribes and unprecedented opportunities to embezzle funds intended for public works. Unless America acts to roll back the opaque corporate networks underpinning this kind of transnational corruption, the situation will only worsen as the CCP exploits new opportunities to expand its influence throughout the developing world in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic.

这其中就包括“一带一路”倡议。随着地方精英受到贿赂和前所未有的机会的诱惑,挪用原本用于公共工程的资金,“一带一路”倡议成为了欧亚大陆各地盗国贼统治的渠道。除非美国采取行动,遏制支撑这种跨国腐败的不透明的企业网络,否则情况只会进一步恶化,因为在中共病毒大流行后,中共会利用新的机会扩大其在发展中国家的影响力。

Though Congress is currently considering bipartisan, widely-supported legislation (the magnificently named “ILLICIT CASH” Act) to set this process in motion, time is now running very short. And failure to act means yet another year in which America’s adversaries are free to abuse the U.S. financial system and spread corruption worldwide in total anonymity.

尽管国会目前正在考虑两党合作、得到广泛支持的立法(名为“非法现金”法案)来启动这一进程,但时间已经非常紧迫。如果不采取行动,就意味着美国的敌人们又将在这一年肆意滥用美国的金融体系,在全球范围内匿名散播腐败。

The annual National Defense Authorization Act — currently on the floor of the Senate — offers perhaps the best opportunity to address this critical national security threat before the end of the year.

目前正在参议院审议的年度《国防授权法案》可能是在今年年底前解决这一重大国家安全威胁的最佳机会。

It seems ridiculous, at first glance, to compare this minor technocratic reform to the military posturing, technology races and trade wars that characterize the U.S.-China rivalry. And yet, as the CCP seeks to erode rule of law and remake global institutions amenable to its own interests, it is financial transparency that can become the most powerful weapon in the economic arsenal of democratic, capitalist societies worldwide.

乍一看,将这一微不足道的技术官僚改革与美国特有的军事姿态、技术竞赛和象征美中对抗的贸易战相比,似乎有些荒谬。然而,在中共寻求削弱法治、重塑符合自身利益的全球机构之际,金融透明度可能成为全球民主资本主义社会经济武器库中最强大的武器。

编辑:【喜马拉雅战鹰团】Edited by:【Himalaya Hawk Squad】