Modern Physics Forces, CONTRADICTIONS, and One Theory To rule them all

Modern physics is the collective group of all post-Newtonian concepts of physics (that is, physic concepts that came after Isaac Newton's time). Modern physics can be traced back to the early 20th century, when German-born scientist Albert Einstein formulated his General Theory of Relativity; a while afterwards, other physicists started observing the mechanics of atomic forces and components of the atom, studying how they work within the observable universe - giving to the rise of quantum mechanics. Both general relativity and quantum mechanics make sense; both hold true to their formulas and concepts when observed by themselves. But, as other scientific concepts, when old and new come together, problems arise, and either one must be revised - or another concept must be found in order to unify everything.

One part of the main concepts of modern physics is the General Theory of Relativity, a theory developed by Einstein during World War One; it gives an explanation on what exactly gravity might be:

Think of the universe as a giant rubber sheet, or a trampoline. This material, the "fabric of Space-Time", bends and warps whenever a mass rests on it - for example, a planet or a star. When another mass (such as a planet or asteroid) or a particle (such as one of light) passes by one of these indents in the Space-Time fabric, its own bath is warped and follows the path of the bend; orbits occur when one smaller mass rotates on the indent created by a larger mass - like a biker riding along the side of an emptied pool. The heavier the mass, the steeper the indent (and the faster the biker must go in order to prevent himself/herself from falling in). Sometimes, the sides are so steep that anything and everything, including light, falls in.

Quantum Mechanics, on the other hand, deals with forces and events on the extremely small end of the spectrum; it encompasses Electromagnetism, Strong and Weak Nuclear Forces, and the seemingly chaotic and unpredictable nature of atoms in their interaction with the known world - the opposite of the calm, predictable tendencies of General Relativity. Things are so random and unpredictable that you can never know the true outcome of an experiment until after it occurs - you can only make predictions.

Lightning is one example of electromagnetism that can be easily observed.

One of Quantum Mechanics' forces is electromagnetism, a combined force of electricity and magnetism. This force is much more powerful than gravity, but doesn't have the same length of effect as gravity - only able to work within a range of a few centimeters or so. It is the same force that helps to keep atoms bonded together in molecules.

Another force is the Weak Nuclear Force. It is responsible for radioactive particles and energy, when the forces within an atom's nucleus is too weak to hold it together. This results in the decay of neutrons into protons, flinging out radiation in the process.

The last force is the Strong Nuclear Force. This is the force that keeps the protons and neutrons within an atom's nucleus together, preventing from the same-charged protons from repelling.

Unfortunately, a few problems arise from the use of both of these concepts of Modern Physics: it doesn't make sense how the universe can be both predictable (as with General Relativity) as well as random (as with Quantum Mechanics); another problem, seen in black holes, is that they can't be explained properly with both equations, as black holes are both microscopic and extremely dense. Unification of both theories was believed to be found in String Theory.

String Theory is believed to be able to unify, in the simplest way, all known laws of the universe. It brings up the idea that all matter and forces are composed of these little strands of energy, dubbed "strings". These "strings" vibrate at different frequencies, similar to violin strings, and depending on the frequency create different forms of matter and forces. Unfortunately, string theory has a few...."kinks" in itself. One of the complications is that strings are too small to observe with modern experiments, so knowing whether or not they even exist is next to impossible. Another complication is that, according to the equations of string theory, there's more than likely to be multiple dimensions beyond our current 3 of space and 1 of time - 6 extra dimensions, to be exact. These dimensions curl and fold in on themselves, allowing them to exist within our own reality.

Credits:

Created with images by skeeze - "spiral planetary nebula nebula universe" • skeeze - "milky way andromeda stars" • wilhei - "electricity voltage light" • Zajcsik - "lightning storm night" • Free Grunge Textures - www.freestock.ca - "Nuclear Grunge Symbol" • trailfan - "String theory?"

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