Regarded as the father of Astronomy, Ptolemy and his theory that the Earth is the center of the universe, was the beginning of the Scientific Revolution. This same theory is in the Bible in the beginning of Genesis and it's spread through Ptolemy gave religious believers means to wonder if this was true and if not, brought about doubts about how true the Bible and its teachings were.
The Geocentric Theory. In this theory, the Earth was thought to be the center of the universe while the stars, moon, and sun revolved around it. This was thought because if looking up, the earth did not seem to ever move and gave the impression that only the sun, which appears in different positions in the sky throughout the day, as well as the moon and stars that came during the night and disappeared in the morning.
The Catholic church in early European society during the Scientific age, not in favor of the teachings of Plato because of the absence of the belief in higher being, began to fear its standing in society when people who were embracing knowledge were given the opportunity to question the Bible if Ptolemy theory proved true. A man called Thomas Aquinas integrated Ptolemy's views into Catholicism and prevented this. Neoplatonism arose as books were made more available to people and they began to question things in life.
The Heliocentric Theory is the belief that the sun is the center of the solar system at, if not the center of the universe.
A polish born publisher of "On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres" which was based on his finding by reading the literature of the ancient Greeks concerning the universe. This began a period in time where many began to theorize the make up of the universe, disproving the Earth being the center.
Galileo Galilei was one of the theorists who had his own ideas about the universe. He used the telescope to study the skies and found various similarities and new discoveries about the other planets and how they make up our universe.
Deductive Theory is reasoning that a conclusion is reached only after all considerations of what the answer could be are within the limits of the subject and have been eliminated until only the most logical, factual statement stands.
Famous for the phrase "I think therefore I am". Descartes was a religious man and was focused on philosophy. He believed in God through his theories and reasoning. His idea led to people to explore their own individuality and search for, come up with, and theorize their own answers to questions. This later played a part in the Industrial Revolution that came from more people becoming innovative being that could think freely.
Inductive reasoning opposes Deductive reasoning in the way that the answer to something deductive is definite while an inductive argument is a probability depending on the evidence that led to said conclusion.
Isaac Newton introduced his thesis on gravity. His book, "The Mathematical Principals of Natural Philosophy" states that all objects on Earth were affected by gravity. The gravitational thesis explained why the planets move in a uniform pattern.