Syrian Civil War By Brooke Cini


  • The Pro-government forces, such as: Foreign Shia Militias, Iran, Syrian forces, Hezbollah, and Russia
  • The Rebels, who are backed by the Gulf States, Jordan, Turkey, and the U.S.
  • Islamic States
  • The Kurdish People's Protection Units
  • Nationalist Jihadis
  • Jabhat Fatah al-Sham
  • ISIS

The Government

The government forces clearly want no change to their government and have people involved with smaller religious groups and Hezbollah supporting them.

The Rebels

The Syrian citizens did not approve of what little freedom they were given by the government, which resulted in protests. Because of the protests, President Bashar Al-Assad retaliated by imprisoning many demonstrators and killing hundreds more. The public got more enraged when the government was very strict and harsh with the protesters. Because of the way Bashar Al-Assad handled the situation, a rebel group looking to overthrow the government was made, called the Free Syrian Army, created by traders of the military, and Syria began to creep into the civil war.

The Free Syrian Army

The Free Syrian army is composed of defected army officer and past Syrian army conscripts. Their main goal is to force Bashar Al-Assad out of Presidential office and launch a democratic government in Syria.

Nationalist Jihadis/Jabhat Fatah al-Sham

Both the Nationalist Jihadis and the Jabhat Fatah al-Sham are fighting again the regime.

The Kurdish People's Protection Units

The Kurdish People's Protection Units main enemies is the Islamic States. The Islamic States are fighting for control over Northern Syria, along the border of Turkey and the Kurdish People's Protection Unit does not agree, nor do they want to be controlled by the Islamic States.


ISIS is fighting against the other rebels and the Kurds


  • March 2011: Teenagers were arrested and tortured after they painted revolutionary slogans on a school wall
  • March 2011: Bashar Al-Assad's authority was challenged when pro-democracy protests sprouted throughout the country
  • July 2011: By this time, hundreds of thousands were on the streets protesting Bashar Al-Assad's presidency
  • 2012: By this time the fighting had reached the second city of Aleppo and the capital, Damascus
  • June 2013: Around 90,000 people were killed because of the conflict, according to the United Nations
  • August 2013: Rockets filled with sarin were fired at Damascus, killing hundreds in the suburbs
  • June 2014: The agreement was made that chemical weapons were removed from Syria
  • August 2014: The United States launched an air strike in Iraq to stop ISIL from attempting to take over Kurdish regions in northern Iraq
  • Summer 2015: Russia deploys military troops and equipment to an air base close to Latakia
  • September 2015: Russia launches its very first air strike against certain enemies in Syria
  • March 2016: Syrian troops retake Palmyra from ISIL with the help of Hezbollah fighters and Russian air support
  • September 2016: Russia and Syrian Government start a heavy assault of rebel-held territory in Aleppo after a brief truce failed


Syrian citizens were not pleased with the economic miseries and lack of freedom in their own country. This led the people of Syria to resent the government. The hatred grew when the government became more strict when handling protesters.

From 2007 to 2010, Syria was deeply affected by a drought which lead to about 1.5 million citizens move to the cities from the countryside. This enhanced poverty and rebellion.

Many people fighting this war actually come from outside of the Syrian borders. For example, Lebanese members of Hezbollah, Afghan, and Iranian troops are all fighting along side of Bashar Al-Assad.

Various organizations have formed that disagree with the Syrian government like the Free Syrian army. These groups want to change the government to a democracy and overthrow Bashar Al-Assad's presidential term.


  • Because of the war, about half a million Syrians have died, the majority of that half a million was made up by pro-regime forces. Syria has also lost half of their country’s prewar population, along with the displacement of twenty-two million.
  • Many deaths have been a result if this war, estimating that about 250,000 people have died according to the UN.
  • Since March of 2017, an estimated 5 million Syrian refugees have fled the country along with about 6 million Syrian citizens have been forced out of their homes.
  • Since the war that started in 2011, 13,5 million Syrians are in need of humanitarian help
  • Citizens are either being forced to leave or preemptively leaving their homes because of collapsed infrastructure, violence, or having their families in danger and/or distress.
  • 386,000 have died and 14,000 of the 386,000 are children
  • 95% of people do not have proper health care
  • 70% do not have access to clean water
  • ½ of the children are not in school
  • 80% of the population lives in poverty

Works Cited

Al Jazeera. “Syria's Civil War Explained from the Beginning.” Al Jazeera, Al Jazeera Media Network, 7 Feb. 2017, Accessed 8 Mar. 2017.

BBC. “Syria: The Story of the Conflict.” BBC News, BBC, 11 Mar. 2016, Accessed 8 Mar. 2017.

The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, editor. “Syrian Civil War.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 19 Jan. 2017, Accessed 8 Mar. 2017.

Laub, Zachary. “Who’s Who in Syria’s Civil War.” Council on Foreign Relations, Council on Foreign Relations, 22 Dec. 2016, Accessed 5 Apr. 2017.

Noble, Freya. “Young Syrian Boy Omran.” Daily Mail, Associated Newspapers Ltd Part of the Daily Mail, The Mail on Sunday & Metro Media Group Read More: Http:// Follow Us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook, 18 Aug. 2016, Accessed 29 Mar. 2017.

Vox. Syria's War: Who Is Fighting and Why. Vox, 14 Oct. 2015, Accessed 29 Mar. 2017.

World Vision Satff. “Syria Refugee Crisis: Facts You Need to Know.” World Vision, World Vision, 16 Mar. 2017, Accessed 5 Apr. 2017.


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