The Endomembrane System BY: LANDON SOLINA

The Nucleus

Overview:

  • Composed of nuclear envelope (double membrane), phospholipid bilayer with protein pore channels, chromosomes, and the nucleolus
  • Spherical shape, yet it can be ovular
  • Oversees gene expression, relays info to ribosomes, cell division and growth, and site for DNA and RNA storage and replication
  • Eukaryotic organisms possess a nucleus (plants, animals, fungi, and protists)
  • Prolific in Eukaryotes (figuratively speaking)
  • Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is mutation in nucleic protein "emerin" (or nuclear filament proteins), causes weakness of muscles and stiff joints
  • Prokaryotes don't have a nucleus, so DNA coils up and isolates itself to the center of the cell
The nucleus is essentially the "control center" of the cell

Ribosomes

Overview:

  • Complex of two sub-units of protein and RNA (individual proteins are comprised of amino acids), found scattered throughout cytoplasm or attached to ER
  • Globular shape
  • "Free" ribosomes float in cytoplasm and make proteins that remain there
  • "Bound" ribosomes attached to ER and make proteins that either go into membranes or are exported from the cell
  • Ribosomes are present in all living cells
  • Found in considerable quantity within the cells of all organisms
  • Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome is ribosomal disorder that causes pancreatic problems, which can lead to steatorrhea (abnormal bowel movement) and neutropenia (low # of white blood cells)
  • Molecules made in cells produced either directly by the ribosome or by enzymes made by the ribosome (theoretically speaking)
The ribosome was discovered about 50 years ago by George palade using an electron microscope

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Overview:

  • Composed of sealed sacs and is closely associated with the nuclear membrane
  • Compartmentalizes the cell, provides structural support, allows for targeted protein synthesis
  • Animals, plants, fungi, and protists possess rough ER
  • Can be found within the stomach and the pancreas (produce proteins in secretory cells)
  • ER stress, which occurs if optimal ER protein folding is prohibited, can lead to Alzheimer's (memory loss and confusion) and Parkinson's Disease (slow movement and tremors throughout the body)
  • Covered in bound proteins that aid in the development of proteins
the rough er is positioned Closer to the nucleus than the smooth ER

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Overview:

  • Highly curved, tubular network of membrane channels (continuous with the rough ER)
  • Synthesizes lipids for the cell, detoxifies compounds, and breaks down glycogen
  • Animals, plants, fungi, and protists possess smooth ER
  • Prolific in liver cells (neutralizes harmful drugs and by-products)
  • ER stress can cause conundrums such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease (much like rough ER)
  • Smooth ER does not contain any bound ribosomes
The Smooth ER (left) is further away from the nucleus than the Rough ER (right)

Golgi Apparatus

Overview:

  • Series of flattened, membrane-bound sacs arranged in a somewhat-circular fashion
  • Allows for the synthesis, modification, and packaging of molecules (works with the Endoplasmic Reticulum)
  • Animals, plants, fungi, and protists possess a golgi apparatus
  • Commonly found within pancreatic cells
  • Disease known as Achondrogenesis affects cartilage and bone development
  • Cell wall of plant cells is exported to outside of membrane by golgi apparatus

Mitochondria

Overview:

  • Rod-like organelle with two membranes (outer membrane consists of a phospholipid bi-layer with porins and the inner membrane is relatively permeable)
  • Takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and converts them to energy (ATP is made by the process of cellular respiration)
  • Animals, plants, fungi, and protists possess mitochondria
  • Large concentration of mitochondria in fat and muscle cells (they require a constant supply of energy)
  • Mitochondrial syndrome/disease occurs when the mitochondria within a cell malfunction (result in poor growth and muscle weakness)
  • The inner, fluid section of the mitochondria is known as the matrix
Mitochondria = "Powerhouse of the cell"

Chloroplast

Overview:

  • Spherical/ovular organelle that consists of an outer and inner membrane (of which the thylakoids containing chloroplasts are protected)
  • Produce sugars, oxygen, and energy for the cell by the process of photosynthesis
  • Plants and select protists possess chloroplasts
  • The cells of the leaves of plants contain an abundance of chloroplasts
  • White leaf disease can develop from abnormal chloroplasts and has negative effects on its plant host
  • Grana (stacked thylakoids) are the entities within chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll

Flagellum

Overview:

  • A whip-esque structure (associated with the cell membrane) that is located on the exterior of a cell
  • Has a significant role in cell motility
  • Animals, plants, fungi, protists, and bacteria possess flagella
  • Present in sperm cells (sperm motility is necessary for transport to eggs)
  • Parasitic organisms with flagella can cause chagas disease, which results in swelling, fever, and possibly heart failure
  • Eukaryotic flagella are composed of tubulin, while prokaryotic flagella contain the protein flagellin
Flagella help provide the cell with a means of movement that would otherwise be nonexistent

Cillia

Overview:

  • Slender, hair-like structures that extend from the surfaces of cells
  • Allows for cell motility (similar to flagella) and moves liquid past the surface of cells
  • Cilia are only found within animal cells
  • Located in the lungs, trachea, respiratory tract, and middle ear
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia nullifies the cilia in the sinuses and lungs, causing breathing problems and infection
  • The length of cilia is typically shorter than flagella

Lysosome

Overview:

  • Tiny, circular sacs containing enzyme-rich fluid
  • Release enzymes out of cell, regulates digestion of materials, disposes of dead cells
  • Animal and plant cells possess lysosomes
  • Generally concentrated in the cells of organs of the digestive system (aids in digestion)
  • Cystinosis is a product of an excess amount of the amino acid cystine in body cells (can cause kidney malfunctions and sensitivity to light)
  • Lysosomes can contain as much as 50 different enzymes that aid in carrying out their functions

Food Vacuole

Overview:

  • Membrane-bound sacs that inhabit a circular portion of the plasma membrane
  • Encircles food particles entering the cell and "eats" them, allowing the cell to gain energy (can also have some roles in digestion when lysosomes are considered)
  • Animals, plants, fungi, and protists possess food vacuoles
  • Notably found in unicellular organisms such as an amoeba, protozoa, and paramecium
  • Danon disease causes a weakening of heart and skeletal muscles and intellectual disability
  • In plant cells, food vacuoles contain large amounts of water that is used for photosynthesis

Central Vacuole

Overview:

  • Large membrane-bound sac that makes up the majority of a plant cell's internal structure
  • Stores water/enzymes, regulates movement of waste, provides protection and growth
  • Plants possess a central vacuole
  • Prolific in plants so to speak
  • Fabry disease arises from buildup of fat in the body (results in episodes of pain, the inability to sweat, and red spots on the skin)
  • Size and shape of the central vacuole depends on the type of cell its in and its function

Works Cited

  • http://biology.about.com/od/cellanatomy/p/nucleus.htm
  • http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_nucleus.html
  • https://www.genome.gov/26524120/
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9939/
  • http://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0005975.html
  • http://www.softschools.com/science/biology/function_of_the_nucleus/
  • http://biology.tutorvista.com/animal-and-plant-cells/nucleus.html
  • http://www.softschools.com/science/biology/protist_kingdom/
  • http://classes.kumc.edu/som/cellbiology/organelles/nucleus/tut3.html
  • https://www.mda.org/disease/emery-dreifuss-muscular-dystrophy
  • http://biology.tutorvista.com/animal-and-plant-cells/ribosomes.html
  • http://www.livestrong.com/article/208980-what-is-a-list-of-ribosomes-diseases/
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19955257
  • http://www.whodiscoveredit.com/who-discovered-ribosomes.html
  • http://bscb.org/learning-resources/softcell-e-learning/endoplasmic-reticulum-rough-and-smooth/
  • http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Biology/endret.html
  • http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/101/10/975#sec-1
  • http://biologyfunfacts.weebly.com/endoplasmic-reticulum.html
  • http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Biology/golgi.html
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2850745
  • http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~bioslabs/studies/mitochondria/mitotheory.html
  • http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_mito.html
  • https://www.reference.com/science/cells-contain-mitochondria-a5bad8bc37af3da6
  • http://www.mitoaction.org/mito-faq
  • http://www.kscience.co.uk/as/module1/mitochondria.htm
  • http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_chloroplast.html
  • http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/photosynth/mesophyll.html
  • http://ejournal.sinica.edu.tw/bbas/content/1969/1/bot101-03.PDF
  • http://www.kscience.co.uk/as/module1/chloroplast.htm
  • http://study.com/academy/lesson/flagella-definition-structure-functions.html
  • http://molehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/17/8/524.full
  • http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Flagellum
  • https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/chagas/
  • http://www.biology-pages.info/C/Cilia.html
  • http://www.shmoop.com/biology-cells/animal-cells.html
  • http://www.ciliopathyalliance.org/cilia/structure-and-function-of-cilia.html
  • https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pcd
  • http://www.ivyroses.com/Biology/Organelles/Lysosomes.php
  • https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/lysosomal-storage-disorders/
  • http://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/biology-and-genetics/cell-biology/lysosome
  • http://study.com/academy/lesson/food-vacuole-definition-function.html
  • https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/danon-disease
  • http://biologyfunfacts.weebly.com/vacuole.html
  • https://www.reference.com/science/function-large-central-vacuole-plant-cells-22576d9ae40cb157
  • https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/fabry-disease

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