Manifest Destiny Pages 345-367

Lesson 1

Rivalry In The Northwest

  1. The Oregon Country was a huge area located north of California, between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
  2. The United States based its claim on Robert Gray's discover of the Columbia River in 1792 and the Lewis and Clark expedition.

Adams- Onis Treaty

  1. Many Americans wanted control of Oregon in order to gain access to the Pacific Ocean.
  2. When Adams became president in 1825, he proposed that the two nations divide Oregon along the 49 degree N latitude.

Mountain Men In Oregon

  1. Fur traders had been the first Americans to take up the challenge of living in the Oregon Country.
  2. These tough, independent men spent most of their time in the Rocky Mountains and were known at Mountain Men.
  3. Over time, the mountain men could no longer make a living by trapping.
What did America gain from the Adams-Onis Treaty?

America gained half of the land .America and Great Britain made a joint occupation. This means that they can both settle in Oregon.

Oregon and Manifest Destiny- Marcus and Narcissa Whitmen

  1. Among the first settlers were Dr. Marcus Whitman and his wife, Narcissa.
  2. The new settlers unknowingly brought measles to the mission.
  3. The Cayuse blamed the Whitmans, so on November 1847, they killed the Whitmans and 11 others.

Along the Oregon Trail

  1. The Whitman massacre was a shocking event, but it did little to stop the flood of pioneers on their way to Oregon.
  2. These pioneers were emigrants, because they left the United States to go to Oregon.
  3. Gathering in Independence or other towns in Missouri, the pioneers followed the Oregon trail across the Great Plains, along the Platte River, and through the south pass of the Rocky Mountains.

America Seeks its Manifest Destiny

  1. Since colonial times, many Americans have believed that their nation's mission should be to serve as a model of freedom and democracy.
  2. In 1819, John Quincy Adams expressed what many Americans were thinking when he said expansion to the Pacific was as certain as the Mississippi River plowing to the sea.
  3. O'Sullivan declared it was America's "Manifest Destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us."

"Fifty-Four-Forty or Fight"

  1. Democrats used the slogan, "fifty-four forty or fight" referring to the line of latitude they believed should be the nation's northern border in Oregon.
  2. Polk won the election because Whig support was not united behind Clay.
  3. They two countries compromised and made the border at 49 degrees north latitude.
How did Polk's views differ from Clay's in the 1844 election?

Henry Clay did not have a strong position on the matter at hand. He did not work as hard as Polk did. They both worked for what they wanted, but Polk had a stronger opinion and more voters to agree with him.

Lesson 2

Statehood for Florida and Texas

How did Florida Become a State?

Florida became a state on July 17, 1821. More people had been coming into Florida because they had fertile land. The people who had come to Florida had ruined their soil and were in search for new land to plant their crops.


  1. Under the terms of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, Florida had an appointed territorial governor, a territorial legislature, and a nonvoting delegate to the United States Congress.
  2. Later, as news of the area's fertile land spread, thousands of new settlers streamed into Florida.
  3. Here, the planters established cotton and tobacco plantations, especially in Northern Florida and the narrow strip in the northwest called the Panhandle.

The Territory Grows

  1. Enslaved people made up about one-half of Florida's population.
  2. Congress had to wait until another territory was ready to become a free state.

Statehood for Florida

  1. Florida became the 27th state in the United States on March 3, 1845.
What caused the population of Florida to grow?

The population grew by slavery growing. The slave owners got more land, meaning that they needed more slaves. Soon, one-half of the population were slaves.


  1. Wishing to increase settlement, Mexico offered vast tracts of land to people who would agree to bring families to settle there- as citizens of Mexico.
  2. At first, Mexico encouraged Americans to settle in Texas, but soon, Americans greatly outnumbered Tejanos and refused to follow Mexico's rules.
  3. In 1835, the conflict grew violent, so Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna took an army into Texas to punish the rebels.

The Alamo

  1. The Texans had only about 180 soldiers to fight, and none of them were brave leaders except for Davy Crockett.
  2. For 13 days, the defenders of the Alamo kept Santa Anna's army at bay with rifle fire.
  3. The Alamo defenders have been defeated, but they provided the Texans with a rallying cry, "Remember the Alamo!"

Texas Declares Its Independence

  1. On March 2, 1836- four days before the fall of the Alamo- Texas declared independence from Mexico.
  2. On April 21, the Texans launched a surprise attack; they ended up killing 600 soldiers and captured 700 more- including Santa Anna.

The Lone Star Republic

  1. In September 1836, Texans elected Sam Houston as their president; Mirabeau Lamar served as the vice president.
  2. The sent a delegation to Washington D.C., to ask the United States to take control of Texas. Andrew Jackson refused their request, so they would remain an independent country.

Texas Becomes a State

  1. John Tyler, who soon became president, supported Texas annexation. The Senate remained with their first answer.
  2. James K. Polk supported the annexation of Texas; therefore, when he became president he passed a resolution to annex Texas.
Why did it take a long time for the United States to annex Texas?

It took the United States a long time to annex Texas because the addition of another slave state would upset the balance of slaves and free states in Congress.

Lesson 3

War with Mexico

How did the Santa Fe Trail benefit the New Mexico territory?

The Santa Fe Trail helped the New Mexico Territory because it became a busy trade route. It allowed people to pass through and then, eventually, settle in new Mexico.

The New Mexico Territory

  1. In 1610 the Spanish founded the settlement of Santa Fe.
  2. William Becknell, the first American trader to reach Santa Fe, arrived in 1821. His route became known as the Santa Fe Trail.
  3. The trail became a busy trade route, causing new Mexico to increase. Traders started to settle in new Mexico.
How did William Becknell influence the American settlement of New Mexico?

William Becknell started to use the route for trade. Soon people started to follow his actions. Later on New Mexico increased in size and some of those traders started to settle in the new land.

California's Spanish Culture

  1. After Mexico won independence from Spain, California became a Mexican state.
  2. Soon, people started to set up ranches and Native Americans worked on land in return for food and shelter.

Conflict Begins

  1. President James K. Polk wanted to get the California and New Mexico territories from Mexico, nut as soon as Mexico refused to sell the lands, Polk planned to gain them through war.
  2. Polk sent a representative to mexico to propose a deal of $30 million for California and New Mexico. Mexican leaders refused to discuss the offer.
  3. To bring pressure, Polk ordered for U.S. forces to march into the disputed area on the Rio Grande. Soon, Congress passed a declaration of war against Mexico.

A War Plan

  1. Polk planned to defeat Mexico by driving Mexican forces out of Mexico, seizing new Mexico and California, the advance to Mexico and capture its capital.
  2. Polk accomplished mos of the goals by 1847. They started to head toward California.

California's Uprising

  1. American warships arrived at ports of San Francisco and San Diego to claim the republic for the United States, though Mexico still refused to surrender.
  2. In September 1847, they captured New Mexico's capital, making a huge success for Polk.

Peace Terms

  1. Mexico gave the United States more than 500,000 square miles of territory- what are now the states of California, Nevada, Utah, and most of Arizona and New Mexico.
  2. In return, the United States paid Mexico $15 million dollars and assumed $3.25 million in debts Mexico owed American citizens.
What did America gain from the Mexican War?

America gained about 7 states and $3.25 million in the debts that Mexico owed.

Lesson 4

California and Utah

How did the discovery of gold help California?

The discovery of gold brought in many people who were in search for gold. They often settled in parts of California.

California Gold Rush

  1. When gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in 1848, people from all over the world traveled to California in search of riches, known as forty-niners.
  2. Americans made up about 80% of forty-niners. Others came from Mexico, South America, Europe, and Australia.

The Californios

  1. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war with Mexico and made Californios- Mexicans living in California- citizens of the United States.

The Life of a Forty-Niner

  1. Most forty-niners had no experience in mining, so when they heard of a popular gold site, they rushed to it with pix axes and shovels.
  2. As people rushed to look for gold, they built new communities, and soon built boom towns.

Gold Rush Society

  1. Mining camps contained men of many backgrounds, but few women. Mining towns no police stations or prisons, so vigilantes formed communities to protect themselves.

Economic and Political Progress

  1. Rapid growth brought the need for a better government, so in 1849, Californians applied for statehood and wrote a constitution.
How did the California Gold Rush lead to the expansion of cities?

The California Gold Rush invited people from all over the world to come and search for new riches. Soon the foreigners started to settle in California and created boom towns.

A Religous Refuge in Utah

  1. Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints were building a new community and fulfilling their vision of the godly life.

The Mormons Move On

  1. Joseph Smith, a New Engalander, believed that he could build an ideal society, first by believing in polygamy, which angered many people.
  2. Smith formed a community in New York, but got disapproved, so they eventually settled in Illinois and bought the town of Commerce and renamed it Nauvoo.
  3. Still, at Nauvoo, they suffered for their beliefs, so they moved again this times to the Great Salt Lake.

A Haven In The Desert

  1. The Mormon migration began in 1846; nearly 12,000 Mormons were involved.
  2. They staked to claim the Great Salt Lake and soon they started to settle and start communities.
  3. When the United States Army and the Mormons almost broke out into war because of some of the beliefs, the Mormons gave up the practice of polygamy.
Why did the Mormons have to keep moving from one place to another?

The Mormons had to keep moving because every town that they had planned to settle at, did not like their beliefs. They suffered persecution and mistreatment. They decided to keep moving until they found a place that would except their beliefs.


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