Protein Synthesis

DNA- DNA is the primary genetic material contained within your cells and in nearly all organisms. It's used to create proteins during protein synthesis.

mRNA- mRNA carries the genetic information copied from DNA in the form of Amino Acids.

tRNA- tRNA role is to decode a specific codon of mRNA, using its anticodon, in order to transfer a specific amino acid to the end of a chain in the ribosome.

rRNA- rRNA associates with a set of proteins to form ribosomes. These complex structures, which physically move along an mRNA molecule, catalyze the assembly of amino acids into protein chains.

Steps in DNA replication

Initiation- Enzymes known as helicases unwind the double helix by breaking the hydrogen bonds by splitting them between complementary base pairs, while other proteins keep the single strands from rejoining.

Elongation- Primers start the new process of Elongation, which a new DNA strand grows one base at a time.

Termination- Two new double helices have replaced the original helix when termination is beginning.

Steps in Transcription

Step 1- DNA unwinds

Step 2- Sequence of triplet codes on DNA will specify the amino acid sequence on the protein

Step 3- mRNA is "transcribed" from DNA by complementary base pairing

Step 4- mRNA passes out of the cytoplasm to the ribosome

Steps in Translation

First step- The ribosome binds to mRNA at a specific area

Step 2- The ribosome starts matching tRNA anticodon sequences to the mRNA codon sequence

Step 3- Each time a new tRNA comes into the ribosome, the amino acid that it was carrying gets added to the elongating polypeptide chain

Step 4- The ribosome continues until it hits a stop sequence, then it releases the polypeptide and the mRNA

Last step- The polypeptide forms into its native shape and starts acting as a functional protein in the cell

Translation is located in the Cytoplasm

Complementary nature of DNA, mRNA and tRNA

Credits:

Created with images by Libertas Academica - "Figure 1"

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