Mary Shelley is known for her famous horror novel Frankenstein, which was published in 1818. Mary Shelley was a famous writer of the 19 th century. She was born in 1797 in London; her mother was the famous writer Mary Wollstonecraft, but she died 11 days after Mary's birth. Mary died in 1851 when she was only 53.
If you want, this video narrates the entire life of Mary Shelley.
Frankenstein is a Ghotic novel.. The most common features of a Ghotic novel are:
- the great importance given to terror and horror as two different ingredients;
-the night as the most important setting because darkness is a powerful element that helps to create an atmosphere of gloom and mister
- ancient setting, like isolated castles, abbeys or convents
-the use of supernatural beings like monsters
- heros and heroines
THE PLOT OF FRANKENSTEIN
The story is not told chronologically and is introduced by a series of letters written by Walton, a young explorer on a voyage of expedition to the North Pole, to his sister.One of the main characters in Frankenstein is Victor Frankenstein, a brilliant scientist, who is obsessed with the idea of gaining control over life, death and nature, refusing the limits of contemporary science.He creates a monster with parts and organs of dead men through the use of eletricity and chemistry without respecting the rules of nature. However even Frankenstein is frightened when he sees the fruit of his insane fantasy: a horrible and terryfing monster. The creature escapes from the laboratory where he was created and he tries to make friends, but because of his aspect and for his clearly non-human features he is rejected by all the men that he encounters. His need to communicate with others is continually frustrated and because of his anger he decides to kill Frankenstein's best friend, his little brother and his wife. The monster takes refuge at the North Pole knowing that only there, in a place of total desolation he will kill no more. Dr Frankenstein follows him, intending to kill his creation but it is the doctor himself who is mortally wounded by the monster. He accuses Dr Frankenstein and the rest of mankind of lacking all compassion. The story ends with the monster being borne away on an ice raft in the Arctic sea.
Life is the most precious thing we have. The monster in Frankestein is upset because human being can do heroic actions but at the same time they are wicked, without scruples. Since his creator gave him life, he expects to be taken care of or have some sort of company and friendship. The monster is like a child, he is innocent, kind and he just wants someone to connect with him. No one wants to stay with him because every person thinks he is different , inferior and when he realizes his horrible situation of loneliness he would go back. The monster suffers a lot and in my opinion in life you have to suffer because it is often cruel and hard. Life is beautiful but not always easy, it has problems and obstacles. Life is full of moments of happiness, success, pleasure but also failures, suffering and pain. There is no human being on Earth, who has not experienced struggle and suffering. Every person should be always ready to face adversities and challenges because difficulties test our courage and patience. Life is not a bed of roses but thorns are also parts of it and should be acccepted by us as we accept the beutiful side of life. The story of the creature makes me reflecting upon my life because I have understood how much fortunate I am. I have always received love from my family but unfortunately the monster is abandoded from his father. They always support and help me and they have never made me miss anything. Another aspect I have comprehend is that life is governated more from appariences than reality. People judge someone by the physical aspect or by the first opionion they have but we have to learn to listen the soul; the monster is very ugly but he has a big heart. We live in a society where some people think that you are good if you have a beautiful aspect and money; If you do not have money, no one considers you.
MY MONSTER'S SOLILOQUY
"My creator has spent so much time to create me but now I am neglected. He has decided to establish me and now life is dear to me, i will defend it! I am abandoned and confused. I have tried to integrate me in the society but in this world I am rejected and humiliated by everyone. My ugliness causes the removal and the terror of every person, despite my kindness and intention to help every human being. The truth is that you are a stupid population that judge a book by the cover and the apperiances. There are many people who have a beautiful aspect but the only thing they really have is beauty and it will disappear by the time. You mustn't judge people by the physical aspect or what they wear, what you see or by the first opinion you have of them. You must learn to look at who you have in front because not always who is beutiful outside is also beautiful inside. The most important thing is listening the soul and the heart. I have suffered a lot and now, my creator, you must be afraid of me.I am bigger and more powerful than you and I will kill the people you love: your brother, your wife, your best friend and then I kill you. If i cannot ispire love I will cause fear. "
John Milton is the most important poet and the most representative of the Puritan Age. His poetry was influenced by the historical events of his time. He was very much interested in the Latin, Greek and Italian culture. He war born in London into a Puritan family in 1608. During the Civil War between Royalists and Republicans he became involved in the religious debate of the time and he took an active part on the side of the Puritans. He supported Cromwell but and he wrote for the liberty of the press while the Puritans forbade free discussion. He chose the Puritans only because he believed that in a Republic, more than in a monarchy, there were the ideal conditions for independent religion. When the Puritan power ended, he was first arrested and then released. He died in London in 1674. John Milton is the author of the greatest epic poem Paradise Lost.
Milton chose the epic genre because of the greatness of his subjects. Paradise Lost is an epic poem takes place around what Christians would say is the beginning of human history. The poem begins after Satan's unsuccessful rebellion and the creation of the universe. Milton's conception of the cosmos is slightly strange, but basically at one end is Heaven, at the other is Hell, and in between is a place called Chaos. Paradise Lost tells the biblical story of Adam and Eve, with God and Satan, who is thrown out of Heaven and hurled into Hell with his followers and later tries to corrupt humankind. The narrator of Paradise Lost is an omniscient third person. This means that the narrator is not a character in the story, but an observer that can enter the thoughts of all of the characters in the story. Milton does this on numerous occasions, telling us what Satan is thinking about, or what Adam is really feeling.
SATAN IN MILTON AND DANTE
Milton decides not to describe Satan physically appearance. The only physical characterization is related to his angelic essence: the reader may imagine Satan as a winged man. He embodies the figure of the rebel against authority and he is a strong and abitious being who lost a battle following his values and his needs of power. Satan is a loser who is able to accept his lost and the defeat and has the courage to take revenge and attack God's creation. He seems to be a dynamic character who evolves during the narration and passes trough the battle against God, the fall in Hell and the acceptation of his destiny. In Paradise Lost Satan represents God's eternal justice.
In Dante’s Inferno, Satan is portrayed as a giant demon at the center of Hell. Satan has three faces and affixed under each chin are pairs of wings. As Satan beats his wings, he creates a cold wind which continues to freeze the ice surrounding him. Dante's Lucifer has lost every angelic quality: he is not connoted as a demon, an evil spirit who lives in Hell showing only his strength. Lucifer does not seem to accept God's punishment unlike Milton's Satan. In Dante Satan represents punishment.
These lines are taken from Book I. Satan is surveying his new home trying to become aware of the new situation after his downfall. Satan compares the new world to Paradise and feels lost because everything is different here. He is not glad at first to be there, but he soon rejects despair and accepts the new situation. His ambition is to have a reign somewhere, no matter if that place is gloomy and horrible. Satan feels equal to God in reason and inferior only in power but he has the power of mind, so he has not limits. He is very proud and his boundless pride makes him believe that it “is better to reign in Hell, than serve in Heaven”.
William Blake was a famous poet of the late 18th century and early 19th century. He was born in London on 28 November 1757. His father sent him to a drawing school where he discovered the works of Michelangelo and Raphael. When he was 14 William was made apprentice to an engraver called James Basire. William served 7 years and became an engraver himself in 1779. Blake also wanted to paint and the same year he became a student at the Royal Academy of Arts. In 1789 he published a book of poems called The Song of Innocence. In 1825 Blake was commissioned illustrate Divine Comedy by Dante but he died before he could complete the task on 12 August 1827. He was buried in Bunhill Fields in London.
Blake believed in the reality of a spiritual world but regarded Christianity, and the Church especially, as responsible for the fragmentation of consciousness and dualism characterizing man's life. So he had a vision made up of ''Complementary opposites''; he believed that the possibility of progress lies in the tension between opposite states of mind, like reason and energy, love and hate... For Blake, the two opposite states od mind, are necessary to human existence and they coexist not only in the human being but also in the figure of the Creator, who can be at the same time the God of love and innocence and the God of energy and violence.
In this poem the speaker wanders through the streets of London and comments on his observations. He sees despair in the faces of the people he meets and hears fear and repression in their voices. The cry of the chimney-sweeper stands as a chastisement to the Church, and the blood of a soldier stains the outer walls of the monarch’s residence. The poem is pessimistic,; it is without hope for the future, infact it is full of negative words for example "weakness", "woe", "cry", "fear","appals", "blood", "blights", "plagues","hearse" ...
In the first stanza, the speaker is walking through the streets of London, and, everywhere he sees the downtrodden faces of the poor. They look weak, tired, unhappy, and defeated.
In the second stanza, as the speaker continues his travels, he hears the people's voice everywhere. He hears the same pain and suffering in the cry of an infant to that of a grown man. To him, the people and their minds are not free.
In the third stanza, the speaker reflects on and emphasizes how the wealthy take advantage of the poor. During Blake's time, much money went into the church while children were dying from poverty. Furthermore, during the time frame of the poem, the wealthy and royals were considered responsible for the wars that broke out, resulting in the death of many innocents and soldiers. Because of this, many women were widowed, and, without some one to support them, many families starved. Thus, the unfortunate solider's blood is on the hands of the wealthy.
In the final stanza of the poem Blake is listening in the midnight streets to the cries of young prostitutes as they curse the men who victimize them. The poem ends on a pessimistic note in which Blake reviles the one sacrament that should offer hope and love : marriage. Instead of being predicated on love and respect, Blake sees it as something that enslaves the body and soul. This last stanza explains the theme of society's moral decay.