The two largest challenges that India will face due to the rising population is urbanization and a problem of national hunger.
The most important problem in all cities has been housing the sudden and large scale influx of migrants from rural areas to urban areas especially the metropolises and state capitals. Due to lack of housing, in every city almost fifty percent population live in slums.
A sudden increase of India's urban population along with non-proactive metropolises will give rise to ill-planned urban centers that do not support everyone living there. From 2001 to 2011, India's urban population increased from 27.8 percent to 31.16 percent and is still continuing to rise. In these metropolises, more people are living below the poverty line as the population continues to grow
In 2012, India was ranked 66th in the Global Hunger Index compiled by IFPRI (International Food Policy Research Institute). It is one of only three countries in Asia where the level of hunger is deemed “alarming”; the other two are Nepal (ranked 60th) and Bangladesh (ranked 68th).
The problem of hunger in India is not that there is not enough food produced, but that there is difficulty in storing and transporting the food with security throughout the country. As the population grows, this problem will only get worse because it will be increasingly hard to feed the increasing number of people.