Mongols By Morgan, deJah, amanda, and alyssa

Political Accomplishments

The Mongols were loosely organized into clans. When Temüjin was elected Genghis Khan he gradually unified the Mongols. They were able to bring much of the Eurasian landmass under their rules, creating the largest land empire in history. When Genghis Khan died, his heirs divided the land into separate territories called khanates. Under the rule of Kublai Khan, the Mongols kept expanding the empire and conquered parts of Vietnam for a time. They also took control of China and the rulers adapted to the Chinese political system and made use of a Chinese bureaucrats.

Economic Accomplishments

When the Mongols brought all of Euroasia under one rule, trade increased, especially along the Silk Road. The dynasty eventually fell victim to problems other dynasties had faced: too much spending on foreign conquests, corruption at court, and growing internal instability.

Academic Accomplishments

During the rule of the Mongols, China entered a great age of literature. Because of the invention of printing, literature was more readily available. Art, mainly ceramics and paintings of landscapes, was very popular during during this time. The way they best expressed their literary talents was through poetry.

Japanese

Political Accomplishments

Japan was marked by power struggles between rulers and independent families. In early seventh century, Shōtoku Taishi, a Yamato prince, tried to unify the various clans so that the Japanese could more effectively resist an invasion by the Chinese. The Prince sent representatives to the Tang capital of China to learn how the Chinese ordered their government, based on the Chinese model. Prince Shōtoku wanted a centralized government under a supreme ruler. His objective was to limit the powers of the aristocrat and enhance his own authority. The territory of Japan was divided into administrative districts, and the senior official of each district was selected from among the local nobles.

Economic Accomplishments

During the influence of Shōtoku Taishi, The Japanese central government couldn't overcome the power of aristocrats These powerful families were able to keep the taxes from the from the lands for themselves. Unable to gain tax revenues, the central government steadily lost power and influence.

Academic Accomplishments

Kokugaku was am academic movement in Japan. A school of Japanese philology and philosophy originating during the Tokugawa period. Japan drew heavily from Shinto and Japanese ancient literature.

Korea

Political Accomplishments

Politics of the Republic of Korea takes place in the framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is the head of state, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly.

Economic Accomplishments

Two regime shifts divide the economic history of Korea during the past six centuries into three distinct periods: 1) the period of Malthusian stagnation up to 1910, when Japan annexed Korea; 2) the colonial period from 1910-45, when the country embarked upon modern economic growth; and 3) the post colonial decades, when living standards improved rapidly in South Korea, while North Korea returned to the world of disease and starvation. The dramatic history of living standards in Korea presents one of the most convincing pieces of evidence to show that institutions — particularly the government — matter for economic growth.

Academic Accomplishments

According to a preliminary estimate by the Bank of Korea on 4 January 2008, Korea’s per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and per capita gross national income (GNI), which adjusts GDP for changes in terms of trade, exceeded $20,000 by the end of 2007. This was achieved mainly through the rapid appreciation of the won from a rate of 1,011 won per dollar as of end of 2005 to 900.7 won per dollar at the end of October 2007, as the growth rate of real GDP in 2007 was estimated to be less than 5 percent. Korea appears to be the only formerly colonized nation that has thus far surpassed the per capita income level of $20,000.

India

Political Accomplishments

In the 10th century, a group of rebellious Turkish slaves founded an Islamic state known as Ghanza. When the founder died, his son, Mahamūd took over. He was an ambitious man and attacked the neighboring Hindu kingdoms. Before he died, he had expanded the state throughout the upper Indus Valley and as far as the Indian Ocean. Resistance against the state was led by the Rajputs, Hindu warriors. They were defeated and the state continued its advances. By 1200, Muslim power had reached over the entire plain of northern India. A Muslim state called Delhi was created. Eventually the sultanate of Delhi began to decline and invaders raided the capital.

Economic Accomplishments

Most Indians lived on the land and farmed their small plots. They paid a portion of their harvest each year to a landlord, who then sent part of the payment to the local ruler. The elites and rich merchants lived in conditions of considerable wealth. India was a center of trade between Southwest Asia and East Asia.

Academic Accomplishments

Between 500 and 1500, Indian artists and writers added to the achievements of their predecessors. The buildings developed into magnificent structures, resulting in many Hindu temples.

Vietnam

Political Accomplishments

In the tenth century, they finally overthrew Chinese rule. Chinese influence remained, however. Vietnamese rulers realized the advantages of taking over the Chinese model of centralized government. The new Vietnamese state, which called itself Dai Viet, adopted state Confucianism. Following the Chinese model, the rulers called themselves emperors and adopted Chinese court rituals. They also introduced the civil service examination as a means of recruiting government officials on the basis of merit instead of heredity.

Economic Accomplishments

The states of Southeast Asia can be divided into two groups: agricultural societies, whose economies were largely based on farming, and trading societies, which depended primarily on trade for income. States such as Vietnam, Angkor, and Pagan drew most of their wealth from the land.

Until French colonization in the middle of the 19th century, Vietnam's economy was mainly agrarian and village-oriented. French colonizers, however, deliberately developed the regions differently, designating the South for agricultural production and the North for manufacturing. Though the plan exaggerated regional divisions, the development of exports--coal from the North, rice from the South—and the importation of French manufactured goods stimulated internal commerce.

Accademic Accomplishments

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Southeast Asia

Political Accomplishments

At the top of the social ladder in most Southeast Asian societies were the hereditary aristocrats. They held both political power and economic wealth. Most aristocrats lived in the major cities.

Economic Accomplishments

The sultanate of Melaka, supported themselves chiefly through trade. Trade through Southeast Asia expanded after the emergence of states in the area and reached even greater heights after the Muslim conquest of northern India. The rise in demand for spices also added to the growing volume of trade. As the wealth of Europe and Southeast Asia increased, demand grew for the products of East Asia.

Academic Accomplishments

The first development was expansion and language. The second development, which began possibly as early as 1000 bc, centred on the production of fine bronze and the fashioning of bronze-and-iron objects, particularly as they have been found at the site in northern Vietnam known as Dong Son. The earliest objects consisted of socketed plowshares and axes, shaft-hole sickles, spearheads, and such small items as fishhooks and personal ornaments. By about 500 bc the Dong Son culture began producing the bronze drums for which it is known. The drums are large objects (some weigh more than 150 pounds [70 kilograms]), and they were produced by the difficult lost-wax casting process and decorated with fine geometric shapes and depictions of animals and humans.

Credits:

Created with images by alekseynemiro - "genghis khan portrait wax figures"

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