agriculture the stages of agriculture

the first agriculture stage occurred in 200 bc and the first crop was the wheat grain and barley. During the First Agricultural Revolution, Humans radically changed their behavior. During this period, humans began settling in to single areas and began cultivating the land, planting crops, and raising animals. The crops became domesticated as humans continued their use and animals became tame enough to be used for easy meat and pets/companions. The earliest examples of this behavior appeared in fertile areas around rivers primarily. Examples of early settlements include Eridu, Ur, and Nineveh.

The second agricultural revolution was the innovation, improvements and techniques developed in Great Britain and other neighboring countries between the 17th century and the end of the 19th century. This brought a massive increase in agricultural productivity and net output which in turn supported unprecedented population growth, freeing up a significant percentage of the workforce, and thereby helped drive the Industrial Revolution. The governments of Europe played a role in spurring on the Second Agricultural Revolution by passing laws such as Great Britain’s Enclosure Act that encouraged consolidation of fields into large, single-owner holdings. Farmers increased the size of their farms, fenced in their land, and started to rotate fields. Methods of soil fertilization, crop care and harvesting improved. New technologies improved production as well. These include: the seed drill that made planting in rows easier and advances in breeding livestock that made breeds better producers of food such as milk or beef. The Industrial Revolution helped sustain the second agricultural revolution through machines such as the railroad that helped build agriculture in the Great Plains of the United States as well as other machines such as the tractor and combine. By the 1830s, fertilizers and artificial feeds to livestock helped make it possible to feed larger urban populations which in turn led to the growth of an industrial economy. More efficient agriculture freed people to work in factories, producing other goods and generating enough food for the industrial workers.

the third agricultural revolution also known as the Green Revolution involves two main practices: the introduction of new higher-yield seeds and the expanded use of fertilizers. The green revolution dates as far back as the 1930s, when agricultural scientists in the Midwest began manipulating seed varieties to increase crop yield. In the 1940s research on corn production in Mexico produced a hybrid seed that would grow better. By 1960 Mexico was no longer importing corn because production within the country was high enough to meet demand. Because of the green revolution, agricultural productivity at a global scale has increased faster than population growth. Today, most famines result from political instability rather than failure in production. India became self-sufficient in grain production by the 1980s, and Asia saw a 2/3 increase in rice production between 1970 and 1995. The geographical impact of the Green revolution is highly variable; as in Africa where it has had only a limited impact since agriculture is based on different crops and there is lower soil fertility. An entire field of biotechnology has sprung from the Third Agricultural Revolution and the development of genetically modified organisms, which is principally, genetically engineered crops.


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