S: Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), interracial American organization established by James Farmer in 1942 to fight against racial prejudice, with a nonviolent approach inspired by Gandhi.
S: The Supreme court rules in the Boynton case that segregration in inter-state travel is illegal and intergrated Travel on interstate buses and trains. To test these laws, CORE Director James Farmer leads 13 Freedom Riders out of Washington and into Virginia, ending in New Orleans. (Hartford)
S: The Freedom Rides were bus rides through the South organised by Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) that were designed to test the laws banning segregation by the whites entering "Colored only" areas and the colored entering "Whites only" areas. (Tondeur).
P: When the Freedom Riders entered Atlanta, Georgia, they were met by voilent white mobs. Even with white riders on board, their bus was firebombed. As the riders fled to the back of the bus, they were attacked by a white mob. Many, both black and white, were injured.A second bus headed to Birmingham was attacked. The riders hoped they would be protected by the local police or FBI, but were unaware that the police knew of KKK activity in the area and did nothing to prevent it. The local police even obtained the riders' itenerary and passed it to the Klan, causing another attack (Tondeur)
P: The Greyhound and Trailway drivers refuse to drive any bus carrying freedom riders, so they decide to fly to New Orleans to attend a rally. Bomb threats prevent the plane from taking off. After hours of waiting, Attorney General Robert Kennedy gets them a flight.
S: Joseph Perkins was a twenty-seven year-old CORE member born in Kentucky. He participated in the Southern sit-in movement to end lunch counter segregation and was recruited by CORE in August 1960. He was the first Freedom Rider to be arrested, for requesting a shoeshine from a whites-only shoeshine chair.
P: Diane Judith Nash was born on May 15, 1938 in Chicago, Illinois. She graduated form Park High School and went to college in Washington, D.C. before transferring to Nashville. While in Nashville Nash witnessed southern racial segregation. She attended nonviolent protests and was later elected chair of the Student Central Committee. By February 13, 1960, the mass sit-ins that began in Greensboro, North Carolina on February 1 had spread to Nashville. Nash organized and led many of the protests. As a result, Nashville Mayor Ben West called for the desegregation of Nashville’s lunch counters and organized negotiations between Nash and other student leaders.
S: Freedom Rider John Lewis was beaten in Rock Hill, South Carolina, by Elwin Wilson, a KKK member. He was again beaten on May 20th in Alabama, and we recieved a 52 year late apology. In the famous "Bloody Sunday", John Lewis was beaten for the umpteenth time.
“If there is arrest, we will accept that arrest,” Farmer said. “And if there is violence, we are willing to receive that violence without responding in kind.”
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"The Freedom Riders." The Freedom Riders - North Carolina Digital History. U.S. Department of State., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2017.
Hartford, Bruce. "Sit-ins and Voter Registration in 1960." Race Poverty & the Environment.Vol. 19, No. 1, Public Property Popular Power: New Majority Rising (2012): 15. History & Timeline. Web.
Johnson Publishing Company. "Joseph Perkins." PBS. Public Broadcasting Service, n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2017.
Nicholas, Samantha K. "Nash, Diane Judith (1938- ) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed." Nash, Diane Judith (1938- ) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed. University of Washington, Seattle, n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2017.
Tondeur, Cristy Casado. "Freedom Rides." The American Mosaic: The African American Experience, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Africanamerican.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/1477356. Accessed 21 Mar. 2017.
Tourek, Mary. "Freedom Rider John Lewis Beaten in Rock Hill, South Carolina." Today in Civil Liberties History. N.p., 08 Nov. 2015. Web. 23 Mar. 2017.