Institutions Made by Sean welsh

There are four parts to the development and release of any film- Production, distribution, exhibition and regulation. These four stages are a part of the development and release of any media text by any media institution, but I will be exploring how these stages play a part in the creation of a film as for our coursework we've been tasked with creating the opening sequence of a horror film. A media institution is an organisation involved in the production, distribution, exhibition and/or regulation of a media text. Examples of Media institutions include the following:

Production Companies

Production Companies- These are the institutions that are responsible for the initial phase of a media text's creation. Production is the actual construction of the text and the production company are responsible for developing the narrative, story, plot and script, selecting the director for their film, allocating a budget, casting and the filming of the text. Post-production they also have the role of editing the text to ensure its the way they want it to be distributed. Many regard production companies as the most important institution involved in the process by which films are made as without them there would be no text for the distribution companies to distribute. Warner Bros. & Universal Pictures are both examples of production Companies.

Distribution Companies- Distribution companies are responsible for all aspects of the making of a film that does not include planning or construction. They finance the production companies during construction and any editing done post-production. Production companies will first pitch their idea of a film to the distribution companies and they will look at who the target audience for the text are and whether or not they are the conventional audience for their company and if they find that the target audience are a demographic that they can sell to they'll begin their marketing campaign. So as well as financing the film they're also responsible for marketing the text and distributing it to selected cinemas and retailers. A distribution company's marketing campaign must be successful in order for the film to stand a chance of making them profit, something that is not as simple as it seems as only 1 in 5 films produced in Hollywood make box office. Because of this distribution companies will advertise their films in magazines, on bus stops, billboards, television ads and most typically through film trailers. Recently distribution companies have been using more atypical methods to advertise films, incorporating more convergence into their campaigns to try and keep up to date with the digital proliferation that is apparent in our society. An example of this was when in 2010 Paramount Pictures placed a QR code into the chest of Iron Man's suit on bus stop posters and when people followed the link they would be taken to a website that gave more information about the film.

There are many different types of distribution companies that best suit different texts. The two main types are major and independent. Major distribution companies, such as the 'big six'- Disney, Universal, Warner Bros., Sony, Paramount Pictures and 20th Century Fox, are all situated in Hollywood and have a tendency to go for films with a large target audience to whom they can advertise to. They supply the production companies with huge budgets and have global advertising campaigns. Independent distribution companies, such as Studio Canal, go for films with more original narratives, smaller budget costs and films that explore a plethora of ideologies. These films normally have a niche target audience and so they are more suited to the independent companies as they have smaller, more targeted advertising campaigns.

Which Production Company and Why?

For our production we have decided on using a production company that Aj and I had come up with and designed the logo for called Dark Cloud Productions. At the time we didn't have a great deal of knowledge of production companies and since then had gone for Dark Cloud Productions as we felt it had horror connotations and conformed to the genre well. Since then we have done research into various production companies and we feel as though Dark Cloud Productions remains an appropriate and well suiting production company as it is major/minor and has a very limited budget. We feel as though a major/minor is best suited for our text as they specialise in films that conform to the conventions of mainstream & commercial as well as independent films. Our text features a number of conventions that are split evenly over these two very different categories and so for that reason we fell that a major/minor production company such as Dark Cloud Productions suits our text best.

Which Distribution company and why?

After a great deal of research we came across Rogue Pictures and we decided that they would be the perfect distributers for our construction. We chose Rogue Pictures as they are a Major/minor and they distributed Shaun of The Dead a zombie film that our text has been referenced as being similar to many times in our audience research. Because of the success of Shaun of The Dead and it's similarity to our text we feel as though it would be wise to have them as our distributors. They were also owned by the conglomerate Universal before they were sold in 2009 and so as we have a number of conventions of the mainstream market in our text we feel as though this past will prove to be invaluable.


Exhibition is the retail aspect of the film industry. Exhibitions of texts can be done in a plethora of ways: cinema premiere, live streaming, on Television and by a DVD only release. We have decided that we will exhibit our piece using a DVD release as well as streaming on Netflix and Amazon Prime. The reasoning behind this is that our text is appealing to a niche audience who enjoy watching zombie films with a comic undertone, therefore a cinematic release would not suit us as the cinemas would probably not sell out and leave us with the cinema expenses eating into our profit margins. It is also down to cinema screening becoming outdated and online streaming now becoming the archetypal way to watch films in this day and age, especially with young adults and teenagers, who are the age group of our target audience.


The regulations of films in the UK is done by the BBFC, British Board of Film Classification, and regulation of media texts are done in the public's interest to ensure that they are not exposed to inappropriate material. After reading through the guidelines set out by the BBFC we have decided that our film is a 15 as they state for a 12A "There may be moderate violence...There should be no emphasis on injuries or blood" and in our film their will be emphasis on blood and injuries to connote the zombie genre as it is a archetypal convention of the genre. Also because under 15 they state that "Violence may be strong" which is the level of violence our piece includes.


Created with images by FlanellKamerasFilm - "camera analog pentax" • tmeier1964 - "camera tv watch tv" • Unsplash - "audience crowd people"

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