The link below takes you to the website of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons which gives you information about the job description of a cardiac surgeon and what type of procedures they perform on patients.
First, you must complete your undergraduate studies at a 4 year institution. You do not have to have a specific major but you do have to complete certain classes required by the Medical school you want to attend. These courses are usually chemistry, biology, human anatomy etc.. Then proceeding to medical school, you choose your school and undergo your studies for the next 4 years. Once you graduate from medical school you move on to your residency. A residency is extended training in an actual medical environment such as a hospital. Your residency can last anywhere from 3-6 years, it all depends on what field you wish to pursue.
Scope of practice
Cardiothoracic surgeons operate on diseases that occur in the organs inside the chest and in the bony structures and tissues that form the chest cavity. Coronary artery disease is one of the most common diseases treated by cardiothoracic surgeons. They treat diseases such as, CAD, heart leakage, blockages in the heart valve, heart failure etc..
The median income for a cardiac surgeon is $360,000 a year. However, as an intern you will make about $50,000, and will increase to about $64,000 as you approach the end of your residency. Besides a salary, most surgical interns earn perks. One of the more common is a housing stipend, but don’t expect it to pay for plush digs. It usually comes in at about $3,000 for the year. Some programs, like Stanford's, provide educational allowances, where interns receive an additional $2,000 to cover education expenses. You may also receive supplementary funds to cover the cost of licensing fees.
Some people believe money is the key driver for people becoming surgeons, but income usually relates to the importance and pressures of the job. Surgeons are driven by the highly challenging work. Surgical tools and procedures change significantly over time and surgeons have to constantly learn and advance their skills to improve. Some people also get into surgery because of the adrenaline that comes with the stressful and exciting parts of the job.