:Chapter 8-energy: {Emily Primus}

  • Energy is the ability to do work.
Thermodynamics is the study of the flow and transformation of energy in the universe.
  • There are two laws of thermodynamics.
The first law of thermodynamics is the law of conservation of energy.
  • The law of conservation of energy states that energy can be changed from one form to another, but it can't be destroyed or created. It's like when a person plays the piano. The energy is transferred from the players finger's to the piano key's.
the second law of Thermodynamics is about the quality in energy.
  • The second law states that energy cannot be changed or converted without a loss of usable energy. The usable energy that is "lost" is converted into thermal energy. An example would be electricity converting into heat
  • Entropy is the chaos in the universe. The second law of thermodynamics could be stated as "entropy increases".
All living things need energy, and Almost all energy comes from the sun.
  • Organisms that are able to make their own food are called autotrophs. An example of this would be a plant.
  • Organisms that cannot make their own food and have to eat to get energy are called herterotrophes. An example of this would be an elephant.
These are some examples of autotrophs and heterotrophs
  • Metabolism are referred to as all of the chemical reactions in a cell.
  • A series of chemical reactions where the product of one reaction is the substrate for the next reaction is called a metabolic pathway. There are two types catabolic and anabolic pathways.
Catabolic pathways release energy by breaking down large molecules and making them into smaller molecules.
  • This is similar to a bubble that can split into two.
Anabolic pathways use enerergy released by the catabolic pathways to create large molecules from small molecules.
  • The anabolic pathway is similar to a flower it grows from being a small bud to a flower.
  • The relationship between the two pathways results in a continual flow of energy.
photosynthesis is the anabolic pathway in which light energy is converted into chemical energy to be used by the cell.
  • In photosynthesis, autotrops use light energy, carbon dioxide, and water to form flucose and water to create glucose and oxygen.
Cellular respiration is a catabolic pathway where organic molecules are broken down to release energy for the cell
  • In photosynthesis, autotrops use light energy, carbon dioxide, and water to form flucose and water to create glucose and oxygen.
  • Cellular respiration can happen a lot.
  • Energy exists in many different forms including light energy, mechanical energy, thermal energy, and chemical energy.
  • ATP is the most important biological molecule that provides chemical energy.
Photosynthesis occurs in two phases.
  • Phase one: the light independent reactions.
  • Phase two: the Calvin Cycle.
phase one is where the light-dependent reactions occur.
  • Phase one: chloroplasts catch the light energy. Then flattened pancake like discs called thylakoids is where the reaction occurs in the cell.
  • A stack of thylakoids is called a grana. The fluid around the granas is called the stroma.
  • The light-absorving molecules called pigments are found in thylakoids.
Electronic transport helps move and transfer electrons from donors to receivers.
  • In the first step light energy excites the electrons in photosystem ll. It also causes water to spit. The break down of that water is essential to photosynthesis.
  • Then the excited electrons move from photosystem ll to a molecule in the thylakoid membrane.
  • The next step is for the molecule to transfer the electrons into a series of carriers until it reaches photosystem l. The presence of light gets the electrons to ferrodoxin, a protein.
  • Finally the ferrodoxin protein transfers energy to NADP+, forming NADPH.
Phase two is called the Calvin Cycle. This is the process where energy is stored in organic molecules like glucose.
  • The first step of the cycle is carbon fixation, this is where six carbon dioxide molecules combine with 5-carbon compounds to farm 12 3-carbon molecules.
  • In the second step the energy stored in ATP and NADPH are transferred in to 3-PGA molecules to form high energy molecules.
  • While in the third step 2 G3P molecules leave the cycle so that they can be used for the production of glucose.
  • The final step to the cycle the enzyme rubisco changes the leftover ten G3P molecules into 1, 5-bisphosphates.
Plants use the sugars formed in the Calvin cycle as a source of energy and building blocks for the carbohydrates.
The ENd


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