Genetics By Cameron Bowers and Gabriel Duncan

My Man Gregor Mendel. Gregor Mendel was one of the first to study genetics. He was an Austrian monk who worked in the garden at a monastery. He wondered why the different pea plants were different colors, so he began experimenting and breeding the plants. As generations passed, he discovered a pattern and created genetics, the study of heredity and variation. Heredity is the passing of traits from parents to offspring. The units that pass along the traits are called genes. Each gene contains two alleles which are inherited from the mother and the father.
All genes and alleles have a chance to be dominant or recessive. Dominant genes are seen with a capital letter and recessive are seen with lowercase letter. Dominant genes are always selected over recessive. There are two types of classifications, homozygous and heterozygous. Homozygous had two of the same uppercase or lowercase letters (TT,tt). Heterozygous has different alleles (Tt). Mendel had a principle called Mendel's Principle of Dominance which states that recessive traits can still be possessed if not displayed, and so they can be passed on to a later generation.

All triats consist of a genotype and a phenotype. A genotype is the code previously mentioned that is passed on while a phenotype is the physical or actual result of the genes, such as hair color or eye color. Sometimes people breed things for specific traits. Monohybrid is done to breed one specific trait. Dihybrid is the breeding for two traits.

Punnet sqaures are a tool used to find possible genotypes and phenotypes in a offspring. The above example shows the possible eye color of a child from a homozygous reccesive parent and a homozygous dominant parent. It's a 100% chance that the child will have brown eyes: heterozygous dominant. But the recessive allele is still present and can be passed down.

With all the genetic information being read in our bodies, it can be difficult to decipher all of the information. For that reason, epigenomes are in place. Epigenomes serve as puncuation marks for our genes and they help the proteins to do their job more efficently and accurately.

These snakes represent incomplete dominance and codomincance. The left is an example of incomplete dominance because different traits blend together to make something new, so the patterns from the parents blend. The right is an example of codomincane becuase there are two traits that both show through equally, so they don't blend but actually contrast with eachother.
Chromosomes are tightly packed DNA that contain genes in them. Humans have 23 chromosomes with the 23rd being special called the sex chromosome. The sex chromosome determines your gender, if it is XX you are female, but if it's XY you're male. Sex linked traits are traits that are specifically on the 23rd chromosomes. The other 22 chromsomes are considered to be autosomes. Geneticists are able to look at the chromosome and arrange them in a certain way called a karotype. A karotype is chromosomal profile of a person and it helps geneticists determine if you have any genetic disorders or could pass them down to your children.

Blood typing is when one is tested to see what type of blood they have. There are 4 main types of blood: A, B. AB, and O. Blood typing is used in punnet squares and is represented by I and i. Blood type A can be IAi or IAIA. Blood type B can be IBi or IBIB. Blood type AB can only be IAIB. Finally, blood type O can only be ii. These types can be negative or positive, and it is unknown where the negative blood type came from. Negative blood can not be given to someone with positive blood or vice versa.

This is an exmaple of a pedigree chart. Pedigree charts are used to track inheritence patterns in a family throughout generations. They tell whether or not the individual is affeceted or if they are dead. Pedigree charts can help determine if a person was a carrier or not.
The End


Cameron Bowers

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