Southern Africa pages 377-396

Landforms and Bodies of Water

  • The Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of the continent is considered the place where the two oceans meet.
  • Angola and South Africa are each nearly the size of Europe and are the content's seventh and ninth largest countries.
  • The country of Madagascar occupies the world's fourth largest island, which is also called Madagascar.


  • In Angola, the escarpment, a steep cliff between a higher and lower surface, runs parallel to the Atlantic Coast and continues through Namibia.
  • The Kalahari Desert is a vast, sand-covered plateau that sits some 3000 feet above sea level.
  • South of the Kalahari Desert, much of the rest of Southern Africa is covered by a huge plateau that slopes from about 8000 feet in the east and 2000 feet in the west.

Bodies of Water

  • One is the Zambezi
  • Another one is the Limpopo
  • The last one is the Orange

Which type of landform is common in Southern africa?

  • One of the most common land form is the plateau's and highlands.


  • Northern Angola and Northern Mozambique have a tropical wet-dry climate.
  • Each area gets as much as 70 inches of rain per year.

Temperature Zones

  • Annual rainfall varies from 8 inches in some areas to 24 inches in others.
  • Droughts are common; in some places they last for several years.

Desert Regions

  • In inland areas of the Namib Desert, temperatures are hotter with summer highs from upper 80sF to more than 100F.
  • This area is sometimes called the "Skeleton Coast" because many ships used to lose their wa in the fog and run aground.

why are temperatures in southern africa's tropical countries generally not not?

  • These countries are not generally hot because they have lots of fog and mild temperatures because of the Benguela Currents that flow along the coast.

Natural Resources Question

  • Theses resources (platinum, chromium, gold, diamonds, coal, iron ore, uranium, copper) are important to Africa because the diamonds are made into cutting or grinding tools. African also mining for gold, diamonds, coal, iron ore and other minerals.

South Africa's Resources

  • The Republic of South Africa has some of the largest mineral reserves in the world.
  • This industry has attracted workers and investments from other countries that have helped South Africa's industries grow.

Energy Resources

  • The Republic of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Mozambique mine and burn coal from their own deposits to produce most of their electric power.
  • The region's resources are another resource for providing power.

Minerals and Other Resources

  • Namibia is one of Africa's richest countries in mineral resources.
  • Gold is the leading exports for Zimbabwe and Mozambique has the world's largest supply of the rare metal tantalite.


  • Poaching or illegally killing game, is a problem. Poachers shoot elephants for their valuable ivory tusks and rhinoceroses for their horns. Others kill animals to sell their skin and meat and to protect livestock and crops.

Lesson 2 of Chapter 13

History of Southern Africa - Rise of Kingdoms

  • Southern Africa's indigenous people have inhabited the region for thousands of years.

Great Zimbabwe

  • Great Zimbabwe was abandoned in the 1400's, possibly because its growing population exhausted its water and food resources.
  • By the 1300s, it had become a great commercial center, collecting gold mined nearby and trading it its Arabs at ports on the Indian Ocean.

The Mutapa Empire

  • In the late 1400s, the Shona conquered the region between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers from Zimbabwe to the coast of Mozambique.
  • The Portuguese arrived and took over the coastal trade in the 1500s.

Other Kingdoms

  • The Zulu leader Shaka united his people in the early 1800s to form the Zulu Empire in what is now South Africa.
  • A series of kingdoms rose and fell on the island of Madagascar from the 1600s to the 1800s.

European Colonies

  • Around 1500, Portugal and other European countries began establishing settlements along the African Coast.

Clashes in South Africa

  • During the 1600s till about the 1800s Europeans set up trading posts but did not establish colonies, which are larger territories with settlers from the home country.

The Union of South Africa

  • Beginning in the 1830s, thousands of Boers left the colony in a migration called the Great Trek and settled north of the Orange River.

Colonialism in Other Areas

  • In 1884 representatives of these countries met in Berlin, Germany, to divide the continent among themselves.

which European country claimed the most territory in southern africa in the 1800s?

  • The Union of South Africa.

Independence and Equal Rights

  • Britain granted independence to Malawi and Zambia in 1964 and to Botswana and Lesotho in 1966.
This is Lesotho.

The end of Portuguese Rule

  • Revolts for independence broke out in Angola in 1961 and Mozambique in 1964.
This is Angola.

The Birth of Zimbabwe

  • In 1979 the government finally agreed to hold elections in which all Rhodesian could take part.

Equal Rights in South Africa

  • By the 1970s, apartheid-related events in South Africa had gained world attention.
  • In 1993 a new constitution gave South Africans of all race the right to vote.
  • In 1995 the new government created a truth and reconciliation commission.

Life in Southern Africa - The People of the Region

  • The largest white minority is in the country of South Africa, where whites represent 10 percent of the population.

Population Patterns

  • Fewer than 2 million people live in the small country of Lesotho and Swaziland.
  • Most Botswana and Namibia are much larger than Swaziland and Lesotho, but their populations are only slightly larger.
  • Only 20 percent of its people live in cites, its small size and large rural population mean that most of its farms are small.

Ethnic and Culture Groups

  • Southern Africa is home to many ethnic and cultural groups who speak several different languages.
  • About 4 million Tswana for the major population group in Botswana.
  • Groups like the Chewa, Tsonga, Anbo, and San illustare an important point about Southern Africa's history, when Europeans divided the region, they paid little attention to its indigenous people.

Religions and Languages

  • In Angola nearly half the population continues to hold traditional indigenous religious beliefs.
  • Southern Africa's colonial past has also influenced its people's religious beliefs.

What is the main religion practiced in southern africa?

  • Christianity is the most practiced region.

Life in Southern Africa

  • Many rural people continue to follow traditional ways of life, at the same time urban and economic growth are challenging and changing many of the traditional ways.

Urban Life

  • Harare, Zimbabwe, has grown to more than 1.5 million, as has Lusaka, Zambia and Maputo, Mozambique. Luanda, Angola's capital, is even larger: It holds 4.5 million people.

Urban Growth and Change

  • Utilities are services such as trash collection, sewage treatment, and water distribution.
  • Outside of the central city are the white neighborhoods where about 20 percent of the cities population lives.
  • Every black ethnic group in Southern Africa is present as well, the white community is mainly English and Afrikaner.

Family and Traditional Life

  • Thatch is straw or other plant material used to cover roofs.
  • Periodic Markets are open-air trading markets held regularly at crossroads or in larger towns.

Where in their countries do most southern africans live?

  • Most of the population lives in the country side but then moves because of job opportunities.

Southern Africa Today

  • Southern Africa's wealth of mineral, wildlife, and other resources may be the key to its future.

Health Issues

  • Lack of good rural health care is one reason, although many countries are trying to build or improve rural clinics.


  • Malaria, a tropical disease carried by mosquitoes, is a problem in several countries.
  • In Angola, Malawi, and Mozambique, about 100 to 120 of every 1,000 children die in infancy.
  • Southern Africa has a higher HIV/AIDS rate than any other region in Africa.

Progress and Growth

  • Tourism at national parks has grown with the establishment of stable, democratic governments.
  • Only Zimbabwe and Swaziland continue to suffer economic decline and political unrest, largely due to repressive leaders.

Help from other countries

  • Other U.S programs have provided billions of dollars to pay for medications and care for AIDS sufferers and AIDS orphans.
  • Other countries and international organizations have also made huge investments in the region.

why is life expectancy in southern africa so low?

  • The life expectancy is so short in Southern Africa because of the deceases that go around, not having or not getting enough food or water.


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