By: Madison McGarrity and Olivia Ketchel
Background of Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes occurs most commonly in children and young adults so it is often referred to as “juvenile” diabetes. Only 5% of diabetics will be diagnosed with type 1, and it occurs due to high blood glucose levels because their pancreas is damaged, so it does not produce insulin.
How insulin is used:
Insulin allows glucose to enter the cell. Once the insulin is in the cells then blood sugar will become lower.
Type 1 diabetics need to have an efficient meal plan that should consist of calorie counting and keeping a meal journal to track what is taken in.How to keep a balanced diet:
How to keep a balanced diabetic diet:
- A suggested guideline for diabetics is to limit total carbohydrate consumption to 45-60 grams per meal (no more than 180 grams per day).
- A diabetic plate of food would be ¼ protein, ¼ starch, ½ non starchy vegetables.
- Daily the ratio of percentage of grams in the diet for a diabetic should be: 55:20:25 (carbs:fats:protein).
- Nutrient dense carbohydrates are recommended: ex. Wheat instead of white bread, whole fruit not juice, etc. because fiber does not raise blood sugar.
Monitor Blood Sugar
Daily and Long Term with A1C
- A normal glucose meter reading is 100 mg/dL or less after 8 hours of fasting, or 140/120 mg/dL or less at 2 hours after a meal for those under 50 years old. Normal levels for random glucose testing range between 70-125 mg/dL. You will use a glucometer to test your blood sugar before of after a meal to make sure that your blood sugar is normal. Your doctor will keep track of your A1C which is your blood glucose levels over 2-3 months. The more glucose that enters the bloodstream, the higher the amount of glucose you have in your body. A diabetics want to be under an A1C of 7% and a normal patient should have an A1C 5%.
Lifestyle and Exercise
Exercise is recommended for people who have type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetics should also take certain measures to prevent blood sugar emergencies so they do not cause hyperglycemia.Monitoring blood glucose levels before and after working out and logging your glycemic response to different physical activities are very important tools for safe exercise with type 1 diabetes.
A sugary snack needs to always be with a diabetic in case of low blood sugar levels.
This is recommended before and after any exercise .
- Guthrie, E. (2014). 2.3.1 A Day in the Life: Type 1 Diabetes. Retrieved December 05, 2016, from https://prezi.com/zzrary4wtdxe/231-a-day-in-the-life-type-1-diabetes/
- (n.d.). American Diabetes Association ®. Nutrient Content Claims: American Diabetes Association ®. Retrieved from http://www.diabetes.org/food-and-fitness/food/what-can-i-eat/food-tips/nutrient-content-claims.html?loc=ff-slabnav
- Exercise Tips & Tools. (n.d.). Retrieved December 06, 2016, from http://www.dlife.com/diabetes-food-and-fitness/diabetes_and_exercise/exercise_tips_and_tools