The image above expains the Heros Journey specifically dividing the ordinary and special world Source: http://www.thewritersjourney.com/hero's_journey.htm
The image above explains the Heros inner Journey. Specifically the emotional side of the hero Source: http://www.thewritersjourney.com/hero's_journey.htm
In the book, The Hobbit , Thorin Oakenshield is a character whose leadership affects several outcomes in the book. He faces many inner conflicts within himself due to the pressure of him being the one in command of the Dwarves and taking back their home. He becomes very prideful and even tries to make one of the main characters and friend feel inferior.
A heroes Journey video explanation
A list of top 20 best heroes. An example of a hero in this list who shaped the outcome of his story is Guy Montag. Living in a dystopian universe, Guy is put to the test several times to keep society from destroying itself even more with the burning of books. source: https://www.bookstr.com/article/top-20-heroes-and-heroines-from-books/153
Heroes in literature often have the purpose of teaching us lessons we can apply in our daily lives as people. We can put ourselves in their shoes by examining their situations in the book and what they do to overcome it. Their characteristics make us see our flaws and they act as a mirror in which we can reflect upon what can we do better. Each one of us can relate to a character in a book , to the point where we can feel some sort of connection and it reminds us of ourselves and our struggles. It is here when the role of a hero has completed its purpose.
what about the villain?
"a villain is a victims story who hasn't been told" - Chris Colfer
people can also find a connection with a villain because they can also play the role of a hero
"joins the Dark Side , only to betray it and save his son". - The Emperor