The scientific revolution was a time period of mathematics, physics, astronomy , biology, human anatomy, and chemistry that transformed the views of society. The scientific revolution took place in Europe towards the end of the Renaissance period and continued through the late 18th century influencing the intellectual social movement known as the Enlightenment. The beginning of the S.R was focused on the recovery of the knowledge of the ancients. Society changed during the S.R because the new scientific theories being developed caused people to begin to question a number of things outside the realm of science, including the status quo of what they were being told and taught by community members. This was more to utilize human reasoning to discover how & why things occur the way they do rather than relying on supernatural beliefs or what people were told to take on faith.
Some affects of the Scientific Revolution was that people gained more knowledge, they had greater toleration scientific & religious, less superstition, more scientific answers, and the freedom to deviate from established theories which increased new developments. It was 3 scientists who left an impact on society. The first is Nicolaus Copernicus, he developed the heliocentric theory. This theory argues that the sun was at the center of the universe and that all planets, including Earth, revolved around it. His theory was later proved accurate. The Heliocentric model which had the sun in the center of the solar system was made to oppose the geocentric model which had the Earth in the center. Nicolaus Copernicus wanted to reveal his Heliocentric theory to the public but he waited until before his death as he knew that he would be persecuted by the Church, therefore the heliocentric theory would not be accepted by renaissance society . Another scientist was Galileo Galilei, he further revolutionized astronomy. In 1609, he built a telescope that let him view the cosmos with better detail. Galileo discovered that Jupiter had 4 moons & that Earth's moon had an uneven surface, disproving Aristotle's previous theory that the moon and stars were made of pure and perfect substances. He published his discoveries, but they angered the church, If society believed his theories, which went against Church Doctrine, people would start questioning all of the Church's teachings. Last but not least, Issac Newton an astronomer who discovered gravity. Newton formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. By deriving scientist laws of planetary motion from his mathematical description of gravity, and then using the same principles to account for the way of comets, the tides, the accuracy of the equinoxes, and other phenomena, he removed the last doubts about the validity of the heliocentric model of the Solar System and demonstrated that the motion of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies could be accounted for by the same principles. As you can see, these were some effects of the Scientific Revolution that soon led to people seeing a new light, creating the Age of Enlightenment.
The Enlightenment began in the late seventeenth century where philosophers started to used scientific methods to accept political and social doctrines. The Age of Enlightenment came from the Scientific Revolution and the political and social condition of the 18th century. The Enlightenment begins with the scientific revolution of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The rise of the new science progressively undermines not only the ancient geocentric conception of the cosmos, but the entire set of presuppositions that had served to constrain and guide philosophical inquiry. The dramatic success of the new science in explaining the natural world, in accounting for a wide variety of phenomena by appeal to a relatively small number of elegant mathematical formula, promotes philosophy from a handmaiden of theology, constrained by its purposes and methods, to an independent force with the power and authority to challenge the old and construct the new, in the realms both of theory and practice, on the basis of its own principles.
The social contract is a theory or model that came during the Age of Enlightenment that typically addresses the questions of the origin of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual. Social contract arguments usually say that individuals have consented, either explicitly or tacitly, to surrender some of their freedoms and submit to the authority of the ruler or officer in exchange for protection of their remaining rights. The question of the relation between natural and legal rights is often an aspect of social contract theory. Jean Jacques Rousseau and John Locke each took the social contact theory to another level. Rousseau wrote The Social Contract, or Principles of Political Right in which he said that the government came from the idea of popular sovereignty. John Locke also based his political writings on the idea of the social contract. He stressed the role of an independent person and the idea during the 'State of Nature' people are essentially free. The theory of the social contract had a major impact on our founding fathers. The U.S constitution itself starts with the 3 words, "We the people..." stating this idea of popular sovereignty in the beginning of this document. So, government that is created by the free choice of its people are required to serve the people, who in the end have the supreme power to keep/get rid of the government. During the Age of Enlightenment, the concept of natural laws was used to challenge the divine right of kings, and became an alternative justification for the establishment of a social contract, positive law, and government and legal rights in the form of classical republicanism. Conversely, the idea of natural rights is used by others to challenge the legitimacy of all such establishments. Locke wrote that all individuals are equal in the sense that they are born with certain "inalienable" natural rights. That is, rights that are God-given and can never be taken or even given away. Among these fundamental natural rights, Locke said, are "life, liberty, and property." He believed that the most basic human law of nature is the preservation of mankind. To serve that purpose, he argued that individuals have both a right and a duty to preserve their own lives. Murderers, however, forfeit their right to life since they act outside the law of reason. Locke also argued that individuals should be free to make choices about how to conduct their own lives as long as they do not interfere with the liberty of others. Locke therefore believed liberty should be far-reaching. This soon led to ideas of the Declaration of Indendence. In conclusion, natural rights and the social contract were futuristic.