Southern Africa Caroline Fredenburg | pages 377-396

lesson one

Landforms and bodies of water

  1. The Kalahari Desert is a hug, sand-covered plateau that rises about 3,000 feet above sea level.
  2. The Drakensberg mountains run parallel to the Indian Ocean coastline for about 700 miles.
  3. The Zambezi River is the longest river in Southern Africa.

Which type of land form is common in Southern Africa?


Climate and tropical Zones

  1. Southern Africa has a wide variety of climates that range from humid to arid, to hot to cool.
  2. Northern Angola and Mozambique get a approximately 70 inches of rainfall per year.
  3. Northern Angola an northern Mozambique have a tropical wet-dry climate.

Temperature Zones

  1. Central Namibia, eastern Botswana, and southern Mozambique are semiarid.
  2. The temperature on a summer day is about 70 to 90 degrees Fahrenheit, and that depends on elevation.

Desert Regions

  1. Western South Africa, western Namibia, and most of Botswana are arid.
  2. The daily average temperature is from 48 to 68 degrees Fahrenheit.

Why are temperatures in Southern Africa's tropical countries generally not hot?

The high elevation makes the temperature cooler.

Natural resources

  1. Southern Africa is Africa's richest region in natural resources.
  2. Some countries rely on the natural resources found in South Africa.

What natural resources are found in Southern Africa, and why are they important?

You can find gold, coal, iron ore, uranium, copper, assorted minerals, oil, gems, and many other natural resources in South Africa. Some countries rely on the natural resources in South Africa to stay financially stable.

South Africa's Resources

  1. Some of the largest mineral reserves can be found in the Republic of Africa.
  2. The mining industry has attracted workers and investments from different countries that have helped South Africa's industries grow.

Energy Resources

  1. Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and the Republic of South Africa mine and burn coal from their own deposits to make most of their electric power.
  2. Zambia and Zimbabwe get some of their electricity from the giant Kariba Gorge dam on the Zambezi River.

Minerals and Other Resources

  1. Gold, tantalite, platinum, diamonds, iron ore, and copper can all be found in Mozambique.
  2. Malawi's most important natural resource is fertile soil which is used for subsistence farming.


  1. Poaching is a major problem with Africa's unique wildlife.

How does deforestation affect the energy supply in the region?

Deforestation puts more sediment into rivers, which slows down the water and the amount of energy that is produced from hydroelectric dams.

LESson two

History of Southern africa

Rise of the kingdoms

  1. For thousands of years, South Africa's indigenous people have inhabited the region.

Great Zimbabwe

  1. The Shona people built a powerful kingdom in A.D. 900 in what is currently Zimbabwe and Mozambique.
  2. Great Zimbabwe was mysteriously abandoned in the 1400s.

The Mutapa EMpire

  1. The Shona conquered the area between the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers in the late 1400s.
  2. The Mutapa Empire was conquered by the Rozwi until it became part of the Zulu Empire in the early 1800s.

other kingdoms

  1. Shaka, the Zulu leader, united his people to form the Zulu Empire in present-day South Africa.
  2. In Madagascar, a series of kingdoms rose and fell between the 1600s to the 1800s.

European Colonies

  1. Portugal and many other European countries started establishing settlements along the African coast around 1500.

Clashes in south africa

  1. The Africans and the Dutch started fighting when the Dutch started pushing into Africa.

The union of south africa

  1. In 1910, the Dutch colonies were allowed to join the Cape Colony to form an independent country called the Union of South Africa.

colonialism in other areas

  1. In Southern Africa, Britain over what is now Botswana, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Which European country claimed the most territory in South Africa in the 1800s?

Great Britain

Independence and equal rights

  1. Madagascar gained independence from French rule in 1960 making it the first independent country in South Africa.

The End of the PORTUGUESE rule

  1. The Portuguese had gotten tired of fighting to defend their control of their colonies, and the military overthrew the government.

the birth of Zimbabwe

  1. The white leaders of Rhodesia (now called Zimbabwe) were outvoted in the election that decided who was going to have control over the land.

Equal rights in South Africa

  1. Whites in South Africa stayed in power by limiting the black's educational and economic opportunities as well as their political rights.
  2. The apartheid restricted the rights of blacks.
  3. A new constitution gave South Africans of every race the right to vote in 1993.

Lesson three

Life in southern africa

-The people of the region-

  1. The population in South Africa is about 89% black African.

Population Patterns

  1. The Republic of South Africa has the region's largest population (approximately 49 million).
  2. Malawi is the region's most densely populated country.
  3. Huge parts of Zambia are thinly populated.

Ethnic and cultural groups

  1. Southern Africa has many different ethnic groups that speak several different languages.
  2. Around 4 million Tswana form the major population group in Botswana.
  3. The Zulu make up Southern Africa's largest ethnic group.

Religion and languages

  1. In almost all of the countries in Southern Africa, Christianity is the largest practiced religion.
  2. South Africa has 11 official languages.

What is the main religion practiced in South Africa?


life in southern africa

  1. Many Africans that live in the countryside still follow traditional ways of life.

urban life

  1. In Southern Africa, migration to cities grows because of job opportunities.

urban growth and change

  1. Southern Africa's cities have a mix of many different ethnic groups and cultures.
  2. The quick growth of some cities has strained public utilities.
  3. Johannesburg has attracted people from around the world because of it's role as a mining, manufacturing, and financial center.

family and traditional life

  1. In most cultures, all of the people in a village are related by blood or marriage.
  2. Traditional ways of life are still strong in the countryside of Southern Africa.

Where in their countries do most Southern Africans live?

Most Southern Africans live in cities.

southern africa today

  1. Southern Africa faces serious challenges even though they have great wealth of mineral, wildlife, and other important resources.

health issues

  1. In Southern Africa, life expectancy is as low as 50 years old.


  1. Malaria is a problem in several countries.
  2. Southern Africa has some of the highest rates of infant death in the world.
  3. A big cause of death in children and adults is HIV/AIDS.

Progress and growth

  1. Tourism at the national parks has grown after establishing stable, democratic governments.
  2. Angola and Mozambique continue to rebuild their country's infrastructures.

help from other countries

  1. The USA has helped strengthen democracy in Southern Africa.
  2. Outside countries and international organizations have made investments in Southern Africa.

Why is life expectancy in Southern Africa so low?

There are so many diseases that the people of the region have no treatment for when infants get sick.

Created By
Caroline Fredenburg


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