OER & Open Education: framing definitions Dr Daniel Villar-Onrubia // Dr Katherine wimpenny (Coventry university – Openmed project)
Multiple interpretations and meanings
For instance: "the 'open classroom' movement which originated in Leicestershire and was based on freedom of movement, the importance of 'play' and a novel analysis of the space and architecture of schools. In Britain the movement became known as 'informal education' based on 'learning by doing' in home-like settings or 'learning centers' where pupils were encouraged to be self-directed and creative in 'schools without walls"
Widening access to educational opportunities
- First European universities (Middle Ages)
- Printing press (15th-16th centuries)
- Coffee houses with libraries (17th)
- Self-education societies (18th)
- Miners’ libraries (19th century).
- University of London (est. 1836): any male student capable of taking its degrees – regardless of race or religion // 1878: first university in the UK where women could study // External System: degrees available to those who could not come to study in London
- 1918 Cordoba Reform & University of Buenos Aires (Argentina): an era of free (i.e. at no cost) access to education at university level.
- Rise of distance education universities: UK’s Open University (est. 1969), the University of South Africa, the Indira Gandhi National Open University in India.
Coined at an UNESCO forum in 2002:
“The open provision of educational resources, enabled by ICTs for consultation, use and adaptation by a community of users for non-commercial purposes” (UNESCO 2002, p.24)
"A Creative Commons licensor answers a few simple questions on the path to choosing a license — first, do I want to allow commercial use or not, and then second, do I want to allow derivative works or not? If a licensor decides to allow derivative works, she may also choose to require that anyone who uses the work — we call them licensees — to make that new work available under the same license terms."
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