The Ancient Pit Stop
- Gran lugar para reparar
- Gran lugar para el comercio
- Gran lugar para repostar
- The celtas were the first people to invade.
- Iberos already reclamado
- Celtas take western part and Iberos take eastern part of Spain
- Celtiberos are the 1st civilización in Spain
- Iberian peninsula name comes from these people.
- Galicia still has influencias of Celtic culture (bagpipes, language)
Los romanos están viniendo!
Meridian Coliseum left over by Romans
- Rome is constantly en expansión
- Come to Spain and take it over
- Exhausted all recursos
- Rome’s idea was to matar everyone they see
Segovia Aqueduct also left over by Romans
- Segovia Acueducto still in Spain
- Meridian Coliseo still in Spain also
A Different Type of Goth
Gothic style ancient architecture
- The Germanic Visigoths
- Were bárbaro people
North Africa is where the Moors came from
- Arabs, Berbers, Syrians from North Africa invaded the península in 711 A.D.
- They are being religiously perseguido so España is an escape place
- Easily defeat Visigoth Kingdoms conquering nearly all of peninsula.
Architecture type during reconquista
- Almost continual fight between Christian Reinos in the north of peninsula and Muslim Reinos who controlled the South
- Muslim Spain called “Al Andalus” in Arabic
- Santiago: “Matamoros”
- Patron Saint of Spain
Toledo City of Tolerance
- Influence of all 3 still evident today
- Churches cathedral
- Arab style architecture
- Moors had dividido into small kingdoms.
- Last Moorish king, in Granada, derrotado in January of 1492
City of Granada, where Moors were defeated
- Fernando of Aragon
- Isabel of Castilla
- Casado in 1469
- Uniendo Christian kingdoms against the Moors.
- Solidified their power through religion; military success.
- Ended Reconquista by defeating Moors in Granada in 1492.
The Spanish Inquisition
Artwork capturing torture during Inquisition
- 1492; Last Moorish king defeated; all Muslims remaining in Spain forced to salir or convertir to Christianity.
- 1502; Given the success against the Muslims, it is now decided that all Jews need to leave Spain or convert to Christianity
- But how do we know they’ve converted? We interrogar and tortura them until they confess-or put them on trial and later execute them.
Speaking of Gold Diggers
- Juana, daughter of Fernando and Isabel.
- Marries Felipe (el Hermoso) of the powerful Habsburg family.
- Juana known as La Loca”
- Legend has it that when Felipe died, she carried his coffin through the streets of Granada, stopping often to kiss the corpse of the dead king.
Carlos I 1516-1556
- Son of Juana la Loca and Felipe el Hermoso.
- Holy Roman Emperor
- Charles V of Austria/ Germany
- Under his rule, Spanish Empire grew rapidly - Conquistas of Incas, Aztecs.
- Gold, silver flooded into Spain from Americans. Along with new crops: maize, papas, frutas.
- Carlos V used the funds that were pouring in from the colonies to Subsidize the many religious war he was fighting across Europe.
- Spain under Carlos V became one of the staunchest defenders of Catolicismo as it fought to stop the spread of the protestant reformation across europe.
- He passed on this legacy to his son Felipe II
Felipe II: Family Feud
- Continued wars against Protestantes
- In 1554, married Mary Taylor of England in an attempt to create an international Catholic alliance. A male heir from this marriage would have become King of England, but there was no son and the Protestant Elizabeth I come to power in England.
- Annexed Portugal, Dutch declare independence from Spain: starts war involving England
- 1588: Spain’s Invincible Armada derrotado by England
La Leyenda Negra
- Known as black legend
- So powerful it was said that he would even eat a baby to protect from revolts (myth)
Painting done by El Greco
- Painter from Greece, his real name is Domenikos Theotokopoulos.
- Traveled to Spain in search of work in the decoration of El Escorial.
- Felipe II hated his style and refused to hire him.
- El Greco moves to Toledo and hits the big time.
More Habsburg Kings
- Felipe II is succeeded by his own son, the aptly named Felipe III
- Felipe III muere and his son takes the throne.
- Felipe IV reina from 1621-1665
- Felipe IV reina over one of the richest cultural periods in Spanish History: The Siglo de Oro
Sigle de Oro
- Literatura, Drama, Arte
- La vida es sueño by Pedro Calderon de la Barca
- Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina
- Character of Don Juan introducido-image of “Latin Lover” created.
End of Habsburgs
- Felipe IV’s son, Carlos II is known as “ El Hechizado” (“ the Bewitched”)
- He died in 1700, leaving no heredero to ascend to the throne of Spain
- War of Spanish Successor pitted royal families and their nations against each other to see who would rule Spain
- War ends in 1713, with Spain losing Gibraltar to the English
- Felipe V, the Bourbon grandson of Louis XIV, becomes King of Spain. The Bourbon family remains the royal family of Spain today
- Competent rulers, but more concerned with life at court
- Efforts to convert Spain into a modern state based in the Neoclassical ideas of the enlightenment
- Grandson of Felipe V (son of Carlos III)
- Total incompetencia
- Dealing with Napoleon leads to use of lots of dynamite
- Rebellion of 2 May 1808 in Madrid begins War of Spanish Independence
- Joseph Bonaparte removed from the throne of Spain in 1812
- During the upheaval, most of the colonies in America gain independence
- Constitution of 1812 establishes a parliamentary monarchy
Fernando VII (1814-1833)
- Son of Carlos IV, returns from exile in France to rule after defeat of Napoleon's troops.
- Totalitarian rule, constantly at odds with liberals who wanted to expand on Constitution of 1812.
- Died in 1833, leaving only a daughter, Isabel.
More Bourbon Troubles
- Country is divided on having a woman ruler
- Supporters of Fernando’s brother, Carlos face off against more liberal supporters of Isabel in several “Guerras Carlistas”
- Isabel reigns until 1868
Those Crazy Bourbons
- Isabel rules through political turmoil, with the Carlists continually opposing her authority
- The Glorious Revolution removes Isabel II from power in 1868
- A short lived experiment places King Amadeo of Saboya, an Italian, on the throne from 1870-1873
- The first Spanish Republic is proclaimed in 1873
- It ends in 1874
Here we go again
- The Bourbons return to the throne with the reign of Alfonso XII from 1875- 1885, followed by his son Alfonso XIII from 1902- 1931
- Alfonso XIII was born in 1885 (shortly after his father’s death). His mother oversaw the government as his regent in the interim
- In typical Bourbon fashion, Spain quickly begins a downslide, marked by the loss of it last remaining colonies in 1898 and embarrassing military defeats in Morocco
- Unable to put a stop to the political tension and low morale of the country. Alfonso XIII allows a military general to establish a dictatorship from 1923-1931.
- The dictatorship is unable to solve the problems of the country.
- In 1931, elections are held to determine if Spain should continue a monarchy or give democracy another try
Let’s try this again
- The Second Republic of Spain is established in 1931, ushering in an era of hope and optimism.
- They set up a new progressive constitution, which gives women the right to vote, allows divorce, separates the Church from State, and creates public schools
Can’t we all just get along?
- The new government creates an even deeper political and social divide.
- The military, the Church, and the upper classes think there are too many changes going on.
- Socialists and Communist factions think there are not enough changes and want more change, faster
- General Francisco Franco stages a military revolt in 1936, beginning the Civil War
- Francisco's fascist troops are aided by force from Germany and Italy
- Republican forces get very little help
- Warends in 1939, with Franco’s Nationalist forces winning
- Fascist dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975
- Idealized “glory years” of Spain under Carlos V and Felipe II
- Gender roles, religion, regionalism band, censorship
- Exile of artists, intellectuals, scientists.
One More Time!!!
- Basque terrorist group ETA assassinates Franco’s chosen successor
- Franco chooses grandson of Alfonso XIII to take over
- Upon Franco’s death in 1975, Juan Carlos I de Borbon becomes King of Spain
- Instead of continuing Franco’s policies or establishing an absolute monarchy, Juan Carlos declares democracy in Spain
- He names Adolfo Suarez the prime minister and he starts the Transition - giving back rights and takes away censorship
- Spain becomes an influence in the world and makes a strong alliance with the United States
Train attacked in Madrid attacks
- On march 11, 2004, islamic fundamentalist terrorists place bombs on several commuter trains in Madrid, killing nearly 200 and injuring over 2000
A new direction
Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero
- 2 days after the attack, elections proclaim Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero the new Prime Minister of Spain
- His first action as promised was to withdraw Spanish troops from the US war with Iraq
- Under his government, Spain joined several other European nations in legalizing same-sex marriage (Franco rolls in grave)
- He won re-election in 2008.
La Familia Real
- As a parliamentary monarchy, Spain retains its royal family, although all government decisions are handled by Parliament and the President of the Government.