La Historia de Espana Jacob Wisniewski 8H27

The Ancient Pit Stop

  1. Gran lugar para reparar
  2. Gran lugar para el comercio
  3. Gran lugar para repostar

Pre-Roman Iberia

Celtic architecture
  1. The celtas were the first people to invade.
  2. Iberos already reclamado
  3. Celtas take western part and Iberos take eastern part of Spain
  4. Celtiberos are the 1st civilización in Spain

Celtiberos

Iberian Peninsula
  1. Iberian peninsula name comes from these people.
  2. Galicia still has influencias of Celtic culture (bagpipes, language)

Los romanos están viniendo!

Meridian Coliseum left over by Romans
  1. Rome is constantly en expansión
  2. Come to Spain and take it over
  3. Exhausted all recursos
  4. Rome’s idea was to matar everyone they see

Sobras romanas

Segovia Aqueduct also left over by Romans
  1. Segovia Acueducto still in Spain
  2. Meridian Coliseo still in Spain also

A Different Type of Goth

Gothic style ancient architecture
  1. The Germanic Visigoths
  2. Were bárbaro people

The Moors

North Africa is where the Moors came from
  1. Arabs, Berbers, Syrians from North Africa invaded the península in 711 A.D.
  2. They are being religiously perseguido so España is an escape place
  3. Easily defeat Visigoth Kingdoms conquering nearly all of peninsula.

La Reconquista

Architecture type during reconquista
  1. Almost continual fight between Christian Reinos in the north of peninsula and Muslim Reinos who controlled the South
  2. Muslim Spain called “Al Andalus” in Arabic
  3. Santiago: “Matamoros”
  4. Patron Saint of Spain

Toledo City of Tolerance

  1. Judíos
  2. Cristianos
  3. Musulmanes
  4. Influence of all 3 still evident today
  5. Synangouges
  6. Churches cathedral
  7. Arab style architecture

1492

  1. Moors had dividido into small kingdoms.
  2. Last Moorish king, in Granada, derrotado in January of 1492

Reyes Catolicos

City of Granada, where Moors were defeated
  1. Fernando of Aragon
  2. Isabel of Castilla
  3. Casado in 1469
  4. Uniendo Christian kingdoms against the Moors.
  5. Solidified their power through religion; military success.
  6. Ended Reconquista by defeating Moors in Granada in 1492.

The Spanish Inquisition

Artwork capturing torture during Inquisition
  1. 1492; Last Moorish king defeated; all Muslims remaining in Spain forced to salir or convertir to Christianity.
  2. 1502; Given the success against the Muslims, it is now decided that all Jews need to leave Spain or convert to Christianity
  3. But how do we know they’ve converted? We interrogar and tortura them until they confess-or put them on trial and later execute them.

Speaking of Gold Diggers

  1. Juana, daughter of Fernando and Isabel.
  2. Marries Felipe (el Hermoso) of the powerful Habsburg family.
  3. Juana known as La Loca”
  4. Legend has it that when Felipe died, she carried his coffin through the streets of Granada, stopping often to kiss the corpse of the dead king.

Carlos I 1516-1556

  1. Son of Juana la Loca and Felipe el Hermoso.
  2. Holy Roman Emperor
  3. Charles V of Austria/ Germany
  4. Under his rule, Spanish Empire grew rapidly - Conquistas of Incas, Aztecs.
  5. Gold, silver flooded into Spain from Americans. Along with new crops: maize, papas, frutas.

Road Warrior

Carlos V
  1. Carlos V used the funds that were pouring in from the colonies to Subsidize the many religious war he was fighting across Europe.
  2. Spain under Carlos V became one of the staunchest defenders of Catolicismo as it fought to stop the spread of the protestant reformation across europe.
  3. He passed on this legacy to his son Felipe II

Felipe II: Family Feud

Felipe II
  1. Continued wars against Protestantes
  2. In 1554, married Mary Taylor of England in an attempt to create an international Catholic alliance. A male heir from this marriage would have become King of England, but there was no son and the Protestant Elizabeth I come to power in England.
  3. Annexed Portugal, Dutch declare independence from Spain: starts war involving England
  4. 1588: Spain’s Invincible Armada derrotado by England

La Leyenda Negra

  1. Known as black legend
  2. So powerful it was said that he would even eat a baby to protect from revolts (myth)

El Greco

Painting done by El Greco
  1. Painter from Greece, his real name is Domenikos Theotokopoulos.
  2. Traveled to Spain in search of work in the decoration of El Escorial.
  3. Felipe II hated his style and refused to hire him.
  4. El Greco moves to Toledo and hits the big time.

More Habsburg Kings

Statue of Felipe IV
  1. Felipe II is succeeded by his own son, the aptly named Felipe III
  2. Felipe III muere and his son takes the throne.
  3. Felipe IV reina from 1621-1665
  4. Felipe IV reina over one of the richest cultural periods in Spanish History: The Siglo de Oro

Sigle de Oro

Don Juan
  1. Literatura, Drama, Arte
  2. La vida es sueño by Pedro Calderon de la Barca
  3. Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina
  4. Character of Don Juan introducido-image of “Latin Lover” created.

End of Habsburgs

Carlos II
  1. Felipe IV’s son, Carlos II is known as “ El Hechizado” (“ the Bewitched”)
  2. He died in 1700, leaving no heredero to ascend to the throne of Spain

War!

Statue of Louis XIV
  1. War of Spanish Successor pitted royal families and their nations against each other to see who would rule Spain
  2. War ends in 1713, with Spain losing Gibraltar to the English
  3. Felipe V, the Bourbon grandson of Louis XIV, becomes King of Spain. The Bourbon family remains the royal family of Spain today

The Bourbons

  1. Competent rulers, but more concerned with life at court
  2. Efforts to convert Spain into a modern state based in the Neoclassical ideas of the enlightenment

Carlos IV

Carlos IV
  1. Grandson of Felipe V (son of Carlos III)
  2. Total incompetencia
  3. Dealing with Napoleon leads to use of lots of dynamite

War!!

  1. Rebellion of 2 May 1808 in Madrid begins War of Spanish Independence
  2. Joseph Bonaparte removed from the throne of Spain in 1812
  3. During the upheaval, most of the colonies in America gain independence
  4. Constitution of 1812 establishes a parliamentary monarchy

Fernando VII (1814-1833)

Fernando VII
  1. Son of Carlos IV, returns from exile in France to rule after defeat of Napoleon's troops.
  2. Totalitarian rule, constantly at odds with liberals who wanted to expand on Constitution of 1812.
  3. Died in 1833, leaving only a daughter, Isabel.

More Bourbon Troubles

  1. Country is divided on having a woman ruler
  2. Supporters of Fernando’s brother, Carlos face off against more liberal supporters of Isabel in several “Guerras Carlistas”
  3. Isabel reigns until 1868

Those Crazy Bourbons

Isabel II
  1. Isabel rules through political turmoil, with the Carlists continually opposing her authority
  2. The Glorious Revolution removes Isabel II from power in 1868
  3. A short lived experiment places King Amadeo of Saboya, an Italian, on the throne from 1870-1873
  4. The first Spanish Republic is proclaimed in 1873
  5. It ends in 1874

Here we go again

  1. The Bourbons return to the throne with the reign of Alfonso XII from 1875- 1885, followed by his son Alfonso XIII from 1902- 1931
  2. Alfonso XIII was born in 1885 (shortly after his father’s death). His mother oversaw the government as his regent in the interim
  3. In typical Bourbon fashion, Spain quickly begins a downslide, marked by the loss of it last remaining colonies in 1898 and embarrassing military defeats in Morocco

Alfonso XIII

Alfonso XIII
  1. Unable to put a stop to the political tension and low morale of the country. Alfonso XIII allows a military general to establish a dictatorship from 1923-1931.
  2. The dictatorship is unable to solve the problems of the country.
  3. In 1931, elections are held to determine if Spain should continue a monarchy or give democracy another try

Let’s try this again

  1. The Second Republic of Spain is established in 1931, ushering in an era of hope and optimism.
  2. They set up a new progressive constitution, which gives women the right to vote, allows divorce, separates the Church from State, and creates public schools

Can’t we all just get along?

  1. The new government creates an even deeper political and social divide.
  2. The military, the Church, and the upper classes think there are too many changes going on.
  3. Socialists and Communist factions think there are not enough changes and want more change, faster

Civil War!!!

  1. General Francisco Franco stages a military revolt in 1936, beginning the Civil War
  2. Francisco's fascist troops are aided by force from Germany and Italy
  3. Republican forces get very little help
  4. Warends in 1939, with Franco’s Nationalist forces winning

Francisco Franco

Francisco France
  1. Fascist dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975
  2. Idealized “glory years” of Spain under Carlos V and Felipe II
  3. Gender roles, religion, regionalism band, censorship
  4. Exile of artists, intellectuals, scientists.

One More Time!!!

Juan Carlos I
  1. Basque terrorist group ETA assassinates Franco’s chosen successor
  2. Franco chooses grandson of Alfonso XIII to take over
  3. Upon Franco’s death in 1975, Juan Carlos I de Borbon becomes King of Spain

WHaaa?

Adolfo Suarez
  1. Instead of continuing Franco’s policies or establishing an absolute monarchy, Juan Carlos declares democracy in Spain
  2. He names Adolfo Suarez the prime minister and he starts the Transition - giving back rights and takes away censorship

Democracy

  1. Spain becomes an influence in the world and makes a strong alliance with the United States

11-m

Train attacked in Madrid attacks
  1. On march 11, 2004, islamic fundamentalist terrorists place bombs on several commuter trains in Madrid, killing nearly 200 and injuring over 2000

A new direction

Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero
  1. 2 days after the attack, elections proclaim Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero the new Prime Minister of Spain
  2. His first action as promised was to withdraw Spanish troops from the US war with Iraq
  3. Under his government, Spain joined several other European nations in legalizing same-sex marriage (Franco rolls in grave)
  4. He won re-election in 2008.

La Familia Real

Royal Family of Spain
  1. As a parliamentary monarchy, Spain retains its royal family, although all government decisions are handled by Parliament and the President of the Government.
Created By
Jacob Wisniewski
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Created with images by Efraimstochter - "spain flag flutter" • nathanh100 - "Map of Spain and Portugal" • mattwi1s0n - "White Celtic Cross" • NASA Goddard Photo and Video - "Barcelona, Spain" • Fabiano Rebeque - "The British Museum" • 5kul1k - "Acueducto de Segovia" • puroticorico - "Fountain Square" • NASA Earth Observatory - "North Africa and Europe from Suomi NPP" • jl.cernadas - "4354-Catedral de Leon." • JoaquinAranoa - "andalusia granada alhambra" • http://klarititemplateshop.com/ - "Spanish Inquisition, Plaza Mayor, Madrid" • Biblioteca Rector Machado y Nuñez - "Carlos V" • Biblioteca Rector Machado y Nuñez - "Felipe II" • Cea. - "[ G ] El Greco & Workshop - Saint Francis in Prayer (c.1600s)" • jl.cernadas - "3154-Velazquez na entrada do Museo Arqueoloxico Nacional en Madrid" • tonynetone - "William Shakespeare" • Biblioteca Rector Machado y Nuñez - "Carlos II" • cocoate.com - "Jeff Koons - Louis XIV" • Kvasir79 - "Charles IV (Carlos IV) of Spain" • Biblioteca Rector Machado y Nuñez - "1001075" • irinaraquel - "Federico de Madrazo y Kuntz - Isabel Alvarez Montes, II duquesa de Castro Enriquez y II marquesa de Valderas" • Dick Mooran - "Thoughtful king"

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