Rivalry in the Northwest
- The Oregon Country was a huge area located north of California, between the Pacific ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
- In the early 1800s, four nations claimed the vast, rugged land know as he Oregon Country.
- In 1819 Secretary of State John Quincy Adams got Spain to approve the Adams-Onis Treaty.
- Adams worked out an agreement with Britain for joint occupation.
Mountain Men in Oregon
- These tough, independent men spent most of their time in the Rocky Mountain and were known mountain men.
- They lived in buffalo-skin lodges and dressed in fringed buckskin pants, moccasins, and beads.
- The most popular route was the Oregon Trail.
"What did America gain from Adams-Onis Treaty?"
"America gained half of the land. America and Great Britain made a joint occupation. This means that they can both settle in Oregon."
Oregon and Manifest Destiny - Marcus and Narcissa Whiteman
- In the 1830s, Americans began traveling to the Oregon Country to settle.
- Among the first settlers were Dr. Marcus Whitman and his wife, Narcissa
Along the Oregon Trail
- The Whitman massacre was a shocking event, but it did little to stop the flood of pioneers on their way to Oregon.
- These pioneers were called emigrants--people who leave their country-- because they left the United States to go to Oregon.
- From a distance these wagons looked like schooners, or ships at sea, and people called them prairie schooners.
America seeks Its Manifest Destiny
- Since colonial times, many Americans had believed that their nation's mission should be to serve as a model of freedom and democracy.
- Many believed that the nation's mission was to spread freedom by settling the entire continent.
- O'Sullivan declared it was America's "Manifest Destiny to overspread and possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us."
"Fifty-Four Forty or Fight"
- In 1844 presidential election, James K. Polk, the Democratic nominee, supported to take over all of Oregon.
- Democrats used the slogan "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight," referring to the line of latitude they believed should be the nation's northern border in Oregon.
- Polk's Whig opponent, Henry Clay, did not take a strong position on the Oregon issue.
Statehood for Florida and texas
"How did Florida become a state ?"
"When Spain transferred Florida to the United States on July 17, 1821, Florida became an American territory."
- When Spain transferred Florida to the United States on July 17, 1821, Florida became an American territory.
- Tallahassee became the territorial capital in 1824.
- Here, the planters established cotton and tobacco plantations, especially in the northern Florida and the narrow strip in the northwest called the Panhandle.
The territory grows
- In 1837 the census for the territory of Florida reported the 48,000 people lived there.
- Enslaved people made up about 1/2 of Florida's population.
Statehood for florida
- Florida became the twenty-seventh state in the United States on March 3, 1845.
"What caused the population of Florida to grow?"
"It became a free state."
- Most of these people were Tejanos, or Mexicans who claimed Texas as their home.
- In 1830 Mexico issued a decree, or official order, closing its borders to further immigration.
- Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna took an army to punish the rebels.
- The Texans had only about 180 soldiers to take on Santa Anna's are of several thousand.
- On March 6, 1836, Mexican cannon fire smashed Alamo's wall.
- They had also provided the Texans with a rallying cry: "Remember the Alamo!"
Texas Declares its independence
- On April 21, the Texans launched a surprise attack, shooting, "Remember the Alamo!"
- They killed more than 600 soldiers and captured about 700 more-- including Santa Anna.
- On May 14, 1836, Santa Anna sighed a treaty that recognized the independence of Texas.
The lone star republic
- In September 1836, Texans elected Sam Houston as their president.
- Houston sent a delegation to Washington, D.C., to ask the United States to annex, or take control of, Texas.
Texas becomes a state
- After Polk won, Congress passed a resolution to annex Texas.
- In 1845 Texas joined the Union.
"Why did it take a long time for the United States to annex Texas?"
War with Mexico
"How did the Santa Fe Trail benefit the New Mexico Territory?"
"Someone had started to trade there which brought more people to trade."
the New Mexico territory
- In the early 1800s, the land called New Mexico was a vast region between the Texas and California territories.
- It included all of the land that is now the states of New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah and parts of Colorado and Wyoming.
- As Becknell wrote: "I avoided the so much dreaded sand hills, where adventures have frequently been forced to drink the blood of their mules, to allay [relieve] their thirst."
"How did William Becknell influence the American settlement of New Mexico?"
"He got people to follow his lead."
California's Spanish culture
- Mexicans bought mission lands and set up huge ranches, or ranchos.
- Rancheros--ranch owners--treated Native Americans almost like slaves.
- President James K. Polk was determined to get the California and New Mexico territories from Mexico.
- After Mexico refused to sell the lands, Polk planned to gain them through war.
- To justify a war, Polk hoped to get Mexico to strike first.
a war plan
- Polk planned to defeat Mexico by accomplishing three goals.
- They captured New Mexico's capital, Santa Fe, in 1846 after the Mexican governor fled.
- Even before war with Mexico officially began, American settlers in northern California had began an uprising.
- On June 14, 1846, the Americans declared California independent.
- Defeated on February 2, 1848, Mexico's leaders signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
- Mexico gave the United States more than 500,000 square miles of territory-- what are now the states of California, Nevada, and Utah, as well as most or Arizona and New Mexico and parts of Colorado and Wyoming.
"What did America gain from the Mexican War?"
"They gained more states."
California and Utah
"How did the discovery of gold help California?"
"It brought more people to California."
California Gold rush
- When gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in 1848, people from all over the world traveled to California in search of riches.
- Those who arrived i 1849 were called forty-niners.
- The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war with Mexico and made Californios-- Mexicans living in California-- citizens of the United States.
The life of a Forty-niner
- As ships arrived daily with gold seekers, San Francisco became a boomtown, growing quickly from a tiny village to a city of about 20,000 people.
- For example, an immigration named Levi Strauss sold the miners sturdy pants made of denim.
gold rush society
- As a result, citizens known as vigilantes formed committees to protect themselves.
economic and political progress
- In 1849, Californians applied for statehood and wrote a constitution.
"How did the California Gold Rush lead to the expansion of cities?"
"Since people came to find the gold it expanded and people made cities with the gold."
a religious refuge in Utah
- There, Mormons, or members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, were building a new community and fulfilling their vision of the godly life.
The Mormons move on
- Joseph Smith, a New Engender living in western New York.
- Smith published The Book of Mormon that year, announcing that it was a translation of words written on golden plates that he had received from an angel.
- Still, the Mormons continued to suffer persecution, or mistreatment because of their beliefs.
a haven in the desert
- About 12, 000 Mormons made the migration the largest in American history.
- In 1847 the Mormons finally reach The Great Salt Lake.
- By 1860 there were many Mormon communities, but Utah was not easily incorporated into the United States.
"Why did the Mormons have to keep moving from on e place to another?"
"Some people did not like the Mormons' religious beliefs, especially the belief in having more than one wife."