John Adams was the 2nd president, and Thomas Jefferson was VP. In 1798, the Alien and Sedition Acts were passed. The Sedition part stated you couldn't criticize the Government. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison thought this was unconstitutional. The election of 1800 was hot headed. Both parties thought the only way the country would survive was if their candidate won. Jefferson and Burr won, but they were tied. After the 36th vote, Jefferson finally won. After that, the twelfth admendment was passed, saying there would be different ballots for Presidents and Vice Presidents. The XYZ affair, was when the USA refused to give the French a loan of $12 million. A treaty was signed after fighting had started in the Caribbean. Marbury v. Madison was a case that helped establish the Supreme Court's power to check the power of other branches of the government.