The peppered moth adaption was camoflauge, it was a dark variant color which helped it against predators.
what caused this adaptation:
The cause of this adaptation for the moths was pollution, after the industrial revolution 95% of peppered moths showed this type of coloration. Since lighter moths got eaten more frequently because they lost their advantage to blend in because as light surfaces got darkened by pollution they had no where to blend in.
Why is it a modern example of evolution:
The Peppered moth is an example of evolution because of the shift in coloration, and it being able to stand as a major shift in a species then later leading to variation and natural selection.