Southern Africa Pages 377-396

Landforms and Bodies of water

  1. The region of Southern Africa consists of the 10 southernmost countries on the Africa continent.
  2. Southern Africa is bordered by the Indian Ocean on the east and the Atlantic Ocean on the west.
  3. Several of the region's countries are fairly large.


  1. If Southern Africa's physical geography had to be described with one word, that word would be high.
  2. The plateau's outer edges form a steep slope called the Great Escarpment.
  3. The Kalahari Desert is a vast, sand-covered plateau that sits some 3,000 feet (914 m) above sea level.

Bodies of Water

  1. Zambezi
  2. Limpopo
  3. Orange

Question 1 Which type of Land form is common in Southern Africa

  1. Answer is The most common is the plateau's and the highlands

Climate and tropical zone

  1. Southern Africa has a wide variety of climates, ranging from humid to arid to hot to cool.
  2. The tropic of Capricorn crosses the middle of Southern Africa.

Temperate Zones

  1. Much of South Africa, central Namibia, eastern Botswana, and southern Mozambique have temperate or moderate, climates that are not marked by extremes of temperature.
  2. Annual rainfall varies from 8 inches (20 cm) in some areas to 24 inches (61 cm) in others.

Desert Regions

  1. In inland areas of the Namib Desert, temperatures are hotter with summer highs from the upper 80 to more than 100.
  2. During wet years, desert grasses and bushes appear.

Question 2 Why are temperatures in Southern Africa's tropical countries generally not hot?

  1. Kalahari's location is hotter than Namib.

Natural resources

  1. Mineral resources have helped the Republic of South Africa, in particular, build a strong economy.

South Africa's Resource

  1. The republic of South Africa has some of the largest mineral reserves in the world.
  2. It is the world's largest producer of platinum, chromium, and gold, and one of the largest producers of diamonds-both gems and industrial diamonds, or diamonds used to make cutting or grinding tools.

Energy resources

  1. Oil and gas must be refined, or changed into other products, before they can be used.
  2. The region's rivers are another resources for providing power.

Minerals and other resources

  1. Gold is a leading export for Zimbabwe.
  2. Gold,platinum,and diamonds are mined there too, as are iron ore and copper.


  1. Others kill animals to sell their skins and meat and to protect livestock and crops.

Question 3 How does deforestation affect the energy supply in the region

  1. Deforestation dries up dams threatening hydro power.

History of Southern Africa

Rise of kingdoms

  1. Trade among the groups flourished.

Great Zimbabwe

  1. Great Zimbabwe was the largest of many similar cities throughout the region.
  2. By the 1300s, it had become a great commercial center, collecting gold mined nearby and trading it to Arabs at ports on the Indian Ocean.

The Mutapa Empire

  1. They gradually gained control over the empire and forced its people to mine gold for them.
  2. In the late 1600s, Mutapa kings allied with the nearby Rozwi kingdom to drive out the Portuguese.

Other Kingdoms

  1. A series of kingdoms rose and fell on the island of Madagascar from the 1600 to the 1800
  2. Some of the early kingdoms were influenced by Arab and Muslim culture..

European colonies

  1. Around 1500, Protugal and other European countries began establishing settlements along the Africa coast.

Clashes in South Africa

  1. Some fled north into the desert.

The union of south africa

  1. The small African kingdoms of Lesotho and Swaziland remained under British control.

Colonialism in other areas

  1. Mauritius and Seychelles were Bristish colonies.

Question 1 Which European country claimed the most territory in Southern Africa in the 1800?

  1. Answer is Great Britian

Independence and Equal Rights

  1. Elsewhere, however, freedom was more difficult to achieve.

The end of portuguese rule

  1. Peace was not finally achieved in Anogola until 2002

The birth of zimbabwe

  1. Rhodesia's African population demanded the right to vote.

Equal rights in south africa

  1. English south Africans controlled the government until the end of World War 2.
  2. In 1995 the new government created a truth and reconciliation commission.
  3. The ANC easily won elections held in 1994, and Mandela became the country's president.

Life in southern Africa

The people of the region

  1. The population of southern Africa is overwhelmingly black African.

Population patterns

  1. Southern Africa's countries vary widely in population.
  2. Population depends heavily on geography and economics.
  3. South Africa and Angola are about the same size.

Ethnic and culture groups

  1. Africans are not a single people.
  2. South Africa's 19 million Zulu make up make that country's largest ethnic group.
  3. About 4 million Tswana form the major population group in Botswana.

Religion and languages

  1. Swaziland, Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique's Muslims live on the Muslims populations.
  2. Immigration from Asia explains Zambia's Muslim population, as well as its large Hindu minority.

Question 1 What is the main regligion practiced in southern Africa

  1. Answer Is Islam

Life in Southern Africa

  1. As in other regions of Africa, life differs from city to countryside.

Urban life

  1. Although most people in the region of southern Africa live in the countryside,migration to cities grows because of job opportunities.

Urban growth and change

  1. The region's cities have a mix of many ethnic groups and cultures.
  2. Most,however,live in "townships" at the city's edge.
  3. These areas often have no electricity,clean water, or sewer facilities.

Family and traditional

  1. They provide a house for each wife and their children.
  2. Many villages now consist largely of women,children,and older men.

Question 1 Where in their countries do most Southern Africans live?

  1. Answer is united kingdom.

Southern Africa today

  1. Still,the region faces serious social, economic,and political challenges.

Health issues

  1. Life expectancy in southern Africa is low.


  1. A major cause of death in children and adults is HIV/AIDS.
  2. The disease has created millions of AIDS orphans,children whose mother and father have died from AIDS.
  3. The huge number of AIDS orphans is a major social problem.

Progress and growth

  1. Oil export in Angola and aluminum exports i Mozambique help finance this effort.
  2. Tourism at national parks has grown with the establishment of stable,democratic governments.

Help from other countries

  1. Other countries and international organizations have also made huge investments in the region.
  2. South Africa remains the region's most industrial and wealthiest country.
  3. It also faces serious economic challenges.

Question 2 Why is life expectancy in Southern Africa so low.

  1. Answer is Tropical disease,Malnutrition,and HIV/AIDS.


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