Ancient Rome The Better Civilization

ARCHITECTURE: Although the Greeks began the design of architecture, the Romans continued it with different materials and construction of technique. The Romans began a new design of structures such as the basilica, triumphal arch, monumental aqueduct, amphitheater, granary building, and residential housing block. The Romans also favored columns rather than the Greek approach of using several drums stacked on top of each other. The Romans did not pioneer the idea of lime mortar but they were the first to see the full possibilities of using it to produce concrete. The material was also cheaper than solid stone and could be given a more presentable façade using other cheap material: fired brick or terracotta. Sun-dried mud bricks had been used but fired bricks had the advantage of durability and could be carved just like stone to resemble such standard architectural features. Concrete rubble had usually been reserved for use as a filler material but Roman architects realized that the material could support great weight and could, therefore, create a whole new set of building opportunities. They called it opus caementicium

Dome Creation
Pont Du Gard Aqueducts & Bridges - These sometimes massive structures, with single, double, or triple tiers of arches, were designed to carry fresh water to urban centers from sources sometimes many kilometers away.
Basilicas - The basilica was adopted by the Christian church but was conceived by the Romans as a place for any large gathering, with the most common use being law courts.
Temples - The Roman temple was a combination of the Etruscan and Greek models with an inner cella at the rear of the building surrounded by columns and placed on a raised platform (up to 3.5 meters high) with a stepped entrance and columned porch, the focal point of the building (in contrast to Greek temples where all four sides could be equally important in the urban landscape).
The Roman theatre was of course inspired by the Greek version, but the orchestra was made semicircular and the whole made using stone. The Romans also added a highly decorative stage building (scaenae frons) which incorporated different levels of columns, projections, pediments, and statues such as is found in the theatre at Orange

The Roman army: They famed for their discipline, organization, and innovation in both weapons and tactics. This allowed Rome to build and defend a huge empire which for centuries would dominate the Mediterranean world and beyond. The Roman army was, arguably, the longest surviving and most effective fighting forces in military history. Greek biographer Plutarch credited founder of Rome, Romulus, with creating the legionary forces. Manipular army would be enrolled for a specific amount of time, rather than signing up for years of service as they would do in the Imperial period. The army provided little social mobility, and it took a very long time to complete your service; further, you would probably serve abroad, and whilst the pay was not bad, it was nothing special, and many deductions were made from it for food and clothing, also there were very harsh disciplinary orders. Provided a guaranteed supply of food, doctors, and pay, and it also provided stability. When a soldier of the Auxiliaries was discharged, he received a military diploma, which granted him and his children Roman citizenship and gave legal acceptance of any marriage; for many this was a very attractive reward for joining (and surviving) service in the Auxiliaries.

Structure of the Legion: The Roman army was highly organized institution. Each legion had 5500 men
A helmet with moveable cheek-pieces, metal armour, long sword and lance were the typical equipment of Roman cavalry members.

Economics: The Roman soldiers were an important part of the Roman economy. The soldiers expanded the Empire's territories, allowing the economy to expand, protected trade routes, and consumed large amounts of food and metals. The top ranks in society had the wealth and status to control and exploit property, and to manipulate the legal system. The lower ranks depended for their position on how far they were able to influence the means of production. Land meant wealth, and remained in the family as long as there were natural or adopted heirs. When a family ceased to exist, it was often favored freedmen or even slaves who reaped the benefit. Imports into Italy, especially of wheat, olive oil, and wine were astronomical, as were those of luxury goods from other parts of the Roman world, also, agriculture and trade dominated Roman economic fortunes. The main trading partners were in Spain, France, the Middle East and North Africa. The Romans imported a whole variety of materials: beef, corn, glassware, iron, lead, leather, marble, olive oil, perfumes, purple dye, silk, silver, spices, timber, tin and wine. Farmers could donate surplus crops to the government in lieu of a monetary tax. This system allowed both Republican and Imperial rulers to gain popularity with the masses through free grain distribution and also help to feed the legions at no direct monetary cost

Gold Coin
Rome market place

Creations: Ancient Rome is undoubtedly one of the more prominent names that is extensively known, for making inventions that changed the course of human nature and development. Needless to say, the ancient Roman inventions gave shape to the Roman civilization as we know it today.

Arches: It was the Romans who first found out a way to set an arch on top of two tall pedestals such that it would span over a walkway (and in many cases, even highways). These arches went on to become a pivotal engineering construct that laid the foundation for many of the subsequent structural highlights of ancient Rome. Many bridges were built upon these arches, and so were the aqueducts, sewers, amphi-theaters and the colossal Colosseum.
Grid Based Cities: Romans who embraced this concept, added a new dimension to it and implemented it on such a large scale that grid based settlements became famous. A basic Roman grid was characterized by a rectangle or a square in a nearly perfect orthogonal layout of streets. The two main streets, cardo and decumanus, would cross each other at a right angle in the center of grid. This grid was an ideal structure to organize the different components of city such as housings, theaters and stores into particular blocks.
Sewage: ancient Roman Empire in many ways boasted the highest level of sewage and sanitary management in the contemporary ages. They had made a number of public baths, latrines and an interlinked sewage line connecting them all together in a complex yet an efficient feat of engineering. The abundance of water in the Roman aqueducts along with runoff water from local streams was regularly used to flush these drains and sewers. The flush would then dump all the waste into the nearest river (usually the Tiber), not the best of sanitary solution, but was far better than leaving the sewage lying around in the streets.
The Roman numerals were developed to serve the exact purpose of delivering a standard counting method that could be efficiently used in communications and trade.
Surgery Tools and Techniques: Medical practitioners in ancient Rome not only utilized all available tools to their best, but also developed as many new tools themselves and efficiently devised the use of cesarean section. The military medical corps was established to assist injured soldiers in battles. The Romans also mastered medical innovations to curb immediate blood loss in battles, they invented tools like bronze scalpels, obstetrical hooks, bone drills and forceps, and also the rather frighteningly named vaginal speculum. The Romans are also attributed with pioneering the earliest form of antiseptic surgery since they used to dip medical tools in hot water to disinfect them before surgery.
Newspaper: The majority of content in Acta diurna, translated to 'Daily News', usually comprised of news on political happenings, trials, military campaign, executions, major scandals and other similar subjects. The Romans also published the Acta Senatus that recorded the proceedings in the Roman senate, though this sort-of journal was kept out of public reach until Julius Caesar made it accessible to everyone.

Education: Education was very important to the Ancient Romans. The rich people in Ancient Rome put a great deal of faith in education. The poor in Ancient Rome did not receive a formal education, many still learned to read and write. Parents taught their children the skills necessary for living in the early Republic, namely agricultural, domestic and military skills.

Boys at school learning. Classes ran for 7 days, with religious holidays and summer as the only break. They began at sunrise and ended at sunset for the child to return home and be well rested the next day.
Girls would have learned how to manage a household and the language involved for this task, following their mother's footsteps. This would have included weaving, cleanliness, tidiness, obedience, and politeness. In addition, girls would have learned to give orders so they could have commanded their team of slaves
Men in Rome

Roles of Men: Men in Rome received the best education and best positions in society. Men were the masters of the house, they worked outside in the mornings but rich men would start their work by writing letters, seeing clients and other businessmen. The men had absolute authority over the family. They participated in politics and could be a part of the Roman senate, if they owned enough land. The men had the job to hold their dignity and public appearance in society.

Role of Women: All were expected to be dignified wife and mother the women were expected to play traditional role in household - spinning and weaving yarn, making clothes. They had no legal rights, could not vote. The little education they received was based around domestic work. Women could not divorce, they were defined by men in their life- their father before marriage and husband after. In contrast to Greece, very rare amount of women could work and own land, their degree of freedom depended on wealth and their social status; they could also attend social gatherings. Although overall it was not great, women still gained some rights and freedom. First century AD: women were able to manage their own business and financial unless they married “in manu” (in the control of her husband)

Rome near the tiber river
Created By
Umama Karim
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Created with images by prunkova - "italy rome coliseum"

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