South Africa is on the southern tip of Africa (given by its name) and is surrounded by the countries of Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Swaziland, and Lesotho. Not only does South Africa border Lesotho, but it completely surrounds it. South Africa also touches both the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. It is mostly semiarid with jagged hills on a large interior plateau. It has an area of 1,219,090 square kilometers, or slightly larger than twice the size of Texas, and slightly smaller than Alaska.
South Africa is very diverse having the official languages of Zulu, English, isiXhosa, Sepedi, Xitsonga, Swati, Tshivenda, Afrikaans, and isiNdebele. It's ethnic groups are 80.2% black African, 8.4% white, 8.8% colored, and 2.5% Indian/Asian. It's religions include from largest to smallest Protestant, Christian, and Muslim.
South Africa is a republic ruled by president Jacob Zuma. The country also has three capital cities, which are Pretoria, Bloemfontein, and Cape Town. It's currency is the rand, 13.43 rand is $1. It is also ranked 64/176 in corruption. South Africa has a smuggling, poaching and immigration issue, along with a water shortage, acid rain, soil erosion, and AIDS. Some of the country's natural resources are gold, coal, iron ore, nickel, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, salt, and natural gasses.
South Africa's national anthem is a combination of many different languages, reciting the freedom of South Africa.
South Africa was first settled by the british in 1686, and became a colony in 1814. The colony gained its independence in 1910, and became a country in 1961, though still had problems within the new country. At that time, until very recently, the country was very racially divided, and white men, a minority group, had the most power. Nelson Mandela was born in 1918 and became the leader of protests and resistances against the white men minority, ending him up in prison for almost 30 years in prison. He was released in 1990 and continued the protests until he became the first president of South Africa in 1994, which declared all men in South Africa equal. He retired from politics in 1999 and died in 2013 at the age of 95 from a frequent lung infection.
CIA. "The World Factbook: SOUTH AFRICA." Central Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence Agency, 12 Jan. 2017. Web. 16 Feb. 2017.
History.com Staff, Staff. "Nelson Mandela." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 16 Feb. 2017.