The Indus Valley River provided abundant water for humans,animals and irrigation of crops. Thus making farming ideal and the Ganges, rising in the Himalayas flows south and east to the Bay of Bengal through fertile plains that favor human settlement. (Judge, Connections,pg.45)
Thanks partly to its fertility from rich deposit silt from flooding and to farming eastward spread from West Asia, agriculture came early to the Indus Valley. By 7000 B.C.E. it was home to many farming villages. As population increased, the villages grew larger, and by 3000 B.C.E. towns and cities emerged. (Judge, Connections, pg. 45)
Although the Persians ruled only the northwest, their rule affected much of India, bringing commerce and connections with Persian-ruled peoples throughout West Asia and North Africa. These contacts enabled Indians to export spices, perfumes,gems, and cotton textiles in return for wine, tin, and gold from the west. (Judge, Connections, pgs. 52-53)
In the centuries after 2000 B.C.E. the culture declined , population fell perhaps on account of climate changes, diseases, deforestation and soil exhaustions. As well invasions by other cultures played a major role; archaeologist have also noted that very few weapons were have been discovered indicating that they were a peaceful civilization. (Judge, Connections, pg. 47)
The Aryans were a pastoral nomadic people reputedly ruthless light-skinned herders of cattle and sheep. Their Vedic culture that comes from their sacred hymns composed by priest for religious rituals was easily remembered and passed down in oral forms for centuries. Only after 800 B.C.E, when a writing system emerged, were the Vedas written down.
As noted on the previous slide their Vedic culture that comes from their sacred hymns composed by priest for religious rituals was easily remembered and passed down in oral forms. They first arrived in Northern India around 1500 B.C. E. bringing horses and imposing weapons.