The Indus Valley River provided abundant water for humans,animals and irrigation of crops. Thus making farming ideal and the Ganges, rising in the Himalayas flows south and east to the Bay of Bengal through fertile plains that favor human settlement. (Judge, Connections,pg.45)


Thanks partly to its fertility from rich deposit silt from flooding and to farming eastward spread from West Asia, agriculture came early to the Indus Valley. By 7000 B.C.E. it was home to many farming villages. As population increased, the villages grew larger, and by 3000 B.C.E. towns and cities emerged. (Judge, Connections, pg. 45)

Trading Along the Silk Road

Although the Persians ruled only the northwest, their rule affected much of India, bringing commerce and connections with Persian-ruled peoples throughout West Asia and North Africa. These contacts enabled Indians to export spices, perfumes,gems, and cotton textiles in return for wine, tin, and gold from the west. (Judge, Connections, pgs. 52-53)


In the centuries after 2000 B.C.E. the culture declined , population fell perhaps on account of climate changes, diseases, deforestation and soil exhaustions. As well invasions by other cultures played a major role; archaeologist have also noted that very few weapons were have been discovered indicating that they were a peaceful civilization. (Judge, Connections, pg. 47)

Indo-Aryan Migration

The Aryans were a pastoral nomadic people reputedly ruthless light-skinned herders of cattle and sheep. Their Vedic culture that comes from their sacred hymns composed by priest for religious rituals was easily remembered and passed down in oral forms for centuries. Only after 800 B.C.E, when a writing system emerged, were the Vedas written down.

Aryan Cultural Impact

As noted on the previous slide their Vedic culture that comes from their sacred hymns composed by priest for religious rituals was easily remembered and passed down in oral forms. They first arrived in Northern India around 1500 B.C. E. bringing horses and imposing weapons.


Brahmins consist of those engaged in scripture education and teaching essential for the continuation of knowledge, Kshatryias take on all forms of public service including administration maintainenace of law an order and defense....and so on.

Untouchable Caste

A group of people believed to be less then human such as streetsweepers, latrine cleaners and people that work with the dead. This group of people still thrive and live happily due to their belief system of Samsara (re-incarnation), Dharma which teaches to perform your duties well in this life so that you may in turn have Good Karma (fate or Destiny) that may elevate your status through Samsara(Re-incarnation).

Siddhartha Gautama also known as Buddha came from a prominently wealthy family and decided to leave off worldly possessions after seeing the human condition for the first time upon sneaking out of the palace where he lived. Buddhism was different from Hinduism due to its strict obligations. In Hinduism only Brahmins can acheive moksha(nirvana) also in Buddhism there are no Gods.


After becoming a Buddhist he used his imperial power to propagate the faith, built shrines and temples, established Buddhist communities,he created a paternalistic government that cared about the peoples needs and ensured officials treated them with kindness and respect. He also built roads, rest houses, shade trees and watering spots to encourage commerce and religious pilgrimages. His rule was different than the previous rulers who were not Buddhist. They also did not have the strong army and political power and unity he had.


Created with images by ustung - "India (Jodhpur) Great view of Mehrangarh Castle Palace" • mckaysavage - "India - Ladakh - Travel - 015 - The Indus River" • Emmanuel Dyan - "Lothal - Gujarat, India" • fdecomite - "Silk Road 1992" • Arian Zwegers - "Bukhara, Silk and Spices festival, dancers and orchestra" • - "Unwrapping the body" • Akuppa - "Buddha" • Burma Democratic Concern (BDC) - "King-Ashoka"

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