Jim Crow Era Matty Meier

Jim Crow Politics

During the Jim Crow Era, The cases that were held were unequal to the black citizens and made it hard for them during that time.

The Smith Vs. Allwright Case

The Smith vs. Allwright Case was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court with regard to voting rights and, by extension, racial desegregation.

Thurgood Marshall rose in front of the United States Supreme Court and argued that Texas’s Democratic primary system allowed whites to dominate the politics of that party. The case presented was about the question of whether the Texas Democratic Party’s policy of prohibiting Blacks from voting in primary elections violated the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments.

The court ruled that it was unconstitutional for the state to delegate its authority over elections to the Democratic Party in order to allow discrimination to happen

The political and social advances of Blacks simply could not have occurred without the changes that came to confuse the Democratic white primary.

African-American voter registration quickly improved following the Court’s ruling in Smith, causing Marshall to recognize the case as “a giant milestone in the progress of Negro Americans toward full citizenship"

Within a couple of years, the number of Southern blacks registered to vote rose to between 700,000 and 800,000 by 1948 and then to one million by 1952.

This is a picture during the Smith vs. Allwright case

The Plessy Vs. Ferguson Case

The case started from an 1892 incident in which African-American train passenger Homer Plessy refused to sit in a Jim Crow car, breaking a Louisiana law.

Plessy was brought to Judge John H. Ferguson of the Criminal Court of New Orleans, who upheld the state law. The law was challenged in the Supreme Court on grounds that it conflicted with the 13th and 14th Amendments.

By a 7-1 vote, the Court said that a state law that “implies merely a legal distinction” between the two races did not conflict with the 13th Amendment.

On June 7, 1892, 30-year-old Homer Plessy was put in jail for sitting in the "White" car of the East Louisiana Railroad. Plessy could pass for white but under Louisiana law, he was considered black.

The Plessy decision set the stage that "separate" facilities for blacks and whites were constitutional as long as they were "equal."

The "separate but equal" policy was extended to cover many areas such as restaurants, theaters, restrooms, and public schools.

This is Homer Plessy, who was considered black at the East Louisiana Railroad and was arrested

The Scottsboro Boys Case

On March 25, 1931, a fight broke out between white and black young men who are riding as hoboes on a Southern Railroad freight train

Nine black kids with assault and eventually rape charges are given because they were accused by two white girls who were on the train

On March 30, the grand jury indicts all nine "Scottsboro Boys."

Eight of them are tried, convicted, and sentenced to death

The executions of the defendants were pending appeal to the Alabama Supreme Court

One of the girl's, Ruby Bates, sent a letter to her boyfriend and she denies having been raped

Ruby Bates appeared as a surprise witness for the defense and she denied that any rape occurred and testifying that she was with Victoria Price for the whole train ride. Not with any of the black kids on the train

Seven of the defendants appeared in Callahan's court and the youngest two, Roy Wright and Eugene Williams, were transferred to a Juvenile Court.

These are all nine of the Scottsboro Boys who were accused of rape.

Jim Crow Economy

During the Jim Crow Era, black people's jobs were insecure and unpredictable.

Black people were payed under the minimum wage and a lot of that was due to the racism

It is known fact that if there is a white person and a black person both go in for the same position, both with a criminal record, that the white person would be called back for the position before the black person

The Great Depression brought a lot of suffering to the whole country

National income dropped by 50 percent and unemployment rose to 25 percent

The African Americans were known as the "Last Hired and the First Fired," and they entered the Depression before the stock market crash in 1929 and they stayed there longer than other Americans.

African Americans found it very impossible to find jobs of any kind in agriculture or industry because of the cotton prices dropping

Mechanical devices had already reduced the number of workers required for plowing, hoeing, and weeding, but now planters also experimented with mechanical cotton pickers, which got rid of even more black farm workers.

This image is showing that they had whites get chances for jobs before blacks did.

More Notes

Black urban unemployment reached well over 50 percent, more than twice the rate of whites. In southern cities, white workers made up slogans such as, "No Jobs for N****** Until Every White Man Has a Job" and "N******, back to the cotton fields—city jobs are for white folks."

Since whites had to have their jobs before blacks, unionized white workers and the railroad brotherhoods intimidated, attacked, and murdered black firemen so they could take their jobs

Black women were forced into the Depression era "slave market," where working-class white women employed black women at low wages, as little as $5 per week for full-time jobs in northern cities.

The federal government established the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, which relieved credit problems of banking, insurance, and industrial firms

Hoover believed that the policies would create new jobs, stimulate production, and increase consumer spending, benefits did not help the rest of the economy and end the Depression

This is a black woman who was employed after a white woman because she was black and she could barely make enough money to support her family.

Jobs During The Great Depression

Available jobs during the Great Depression included working as servants or clerks, jobs in factories and positions with one of the railroad companies.

There were jobs available but, with so many people unemployed, there was fierce competition for dense employment.

African-American women were often the first to be laid off from in-house positions and white women took their places.

Women would usually work as seamstresses, maids and servants.

Since the African Americans lost their jobs, they would have some when're to stay

Since the banks closed, nobody could get their money back.

It was hard for African Americans to get jobs because some jobs were for whites only

Since the African Americans couldn't work, they couldn't provide for there family

These are the African Americans working on the cotton fields because whites had to get jobs in factories before them.

Jim Crow Society and Culture

During the Jim Crow Era, Blacks were considered second class citizens and were treated with disadvantages because of their skin color.

Minstrel Shows

Minstrel Shows evolved from a bunch of different American entertainment traditions, like the traveling circus, medicine shows, Irish dance and music with African syncopated rhythms, musical halls and traveling theatre.

In 1842, songwriter Daniel Decatur Emmett and three friends made a program of singing and dancing in blackface to the use of bone castanets, fiddle, banjo, and tambourine. They were called the Virginia Minstrels and they made their first public appearance in February 1843 in a New York City theater.

In 1844, a blackface minstrel troupe called the Ethiopian Serenaders actually played at the White House for the Amusement of the President of the United States, His Family and Friends.

The minstrel shows had three different parts: In the first part, the show began with a walkaround -- the company marching onto the stage singing and dancing. Then the actors were seated in a semicircle, with one member on each end playing the tambourine or the bones. They tell each other jokes between the group's songs and dances.

Part 2 included singers, dancers, comedians, and other novelty acts, and parodies of legitimate theater. Part three ended the show with a one-act play, typically a vignette of carefree life on the plantation.

That was a basic format of a minstrel show during the Jim Crow time.

This is image is showing the black faces playing the tambourine

The Jim Crow Etiquette

Jim Crow was the name of the racial caste system between 1877 and the mid-1960s

African Americans were known to the status of second class citizens and Jim Crow represented anti-black racism.

The Jim Crow system was thought by the following beliefs or rationalizations: whites were superior to blacks in everything, including intelligence, morality, and civilized behavior.

People thought sexual relations between blacks and whites would make a mongrel children and ruin America

Jim Crow etiquette operated in conjunction with Jim Crow laws and when most people think of Jim Crow they think of laws (not the Jim Crow etiquette) which excluded blacks from public transport and facilities, juries, jobs, and neighborhoods.

Overall, Jim Crow Etiquette and Jim Crow Laws just are laws that try to separate blacks and whites as much as possible

Both these photos show that blacks were treated as second class citizens with disrespect

The Emmett Till Story

Emmett was from Chicago and he went to visit his uncle in Money, Mississippi

On August 24, Emmett was standing with his cousins and some friends outside a store in Money and Emmett bragged that his girlfriend back home was white. His friends and cousins didn't believe him so he went up to the girl at the counter and said, “Bye, baby”.

A few days later the girl's husband knocked on the door with his brother-in law and asked if Emmett was there.His uncle said yes and they went in to get Emmett

They made Emmett carry a 75-pound cotton-gin fan to the Tallahatchie River and ordered him to take off his clothes. Then the two men nearly beat him to death, gouged out his eye, shot him in the head, and then threw his body, tied to the cotton-gin fan with barbed wire, into the river

Three days later, Emmett was recovered but was so disfigured that Mose Wright could only identify it by an initialed ring

Emmett Till's mother, Mamie Till, wanted to have an open casket funeral to show all the racism around the world

Two weeks after Emmett was buried, Milam and Bryant went on trial in a segregated courthouse in Mississippi.

On September 23, the white jury decided for less than an hour before issuing a verdict of “not guilty,” explaining that they believed the state had failed to prove the identity of the body

This is how bad the lynching of Emmett Till was and his mother made this an open casket funeral to show the world how bad the segregation is around the world.

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