Robotic Body Parts robotic limbs have become so advanced that they can replace human limbs .

Glossary

Prosthesis: an artificially made replacement for a limb lost through a defect at birth, accident or illness.

Robotic Exoskeleton: A robotic Exoskeleton is a suit from the hips and down that helps those who have paralyzed legs to walk once again.

Ventricular assist devices: Mechanical pump that supports the heart.

Re-walk Rehabilitation System​: designed for use in clinics where it can allow patients the chance to walk again. It also allows people to train in preparation for using their own ReWalk Personal System at home and in the streets.

Myoelectric: electric properties of muscles

tissue engineering : ​using a combination of cells to repair damaged tissues and organs

Why were robotic body parts made?

For decades, people around the world have suffered accidents which cause them to lose a body part. ​ ​ There is several reasons for the making of amputated limbs. One of the reasons Robotic body parts were made is for people who have lost a limb or for those who weren’t born with a limb.“A prosthesis is an artificially made substitute for a limb lost through a congenital defect (present at birth), accident or illness” according to a study from Engineers of Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard University. There are also other reasons for these prosthetics such as wartime injury."As the U. S. Civil War dragged on, the number of amputations rose astronomically, forcing Americans to enter the field of prosthetics,” according to ​ Alexis Okeowo from ​ The Learning Network. ​ Some of the results of the Civil War was people losing body part which alerted Americans and made them join the field of prosthetics and helping to make more advanced body parts.With all the technological advances, ​ some questions asked about robotic parts is if there’s a specific way that they work.

How does the robotic hand work?

The robotic hand is able to connect to the human muscles and function as the human wants, but in order for this to work the human hand needs to be tested so that the prosthetic can track the muscle movement. Some of these prosthetics have batteries and require charging. Miles O'brien, science correspondent, after his experience with the myoelectric hand stated, “She stuck an array of electrodes to my stump, and connected them to my arm, bolted on a stand. She then helped me teach it to do my bidding using pattern recognition. Electrodes detect the faint electrical impulse generated when I contract my muscles.” This describes the process that is done in order for the prosthetic to work with the human muscles. There are other ways that these robotic hands work. “Robotic hands often have built-in pressure sensors that tell the computer how hard the robot is gripping a particular object. This keeps the robot from dropping or breaking whatever it's carrying” (Harris). The robotic hand has many advantages to those who have lost a hand, but there are other prosthetics that offer even more advantages to people who have limbs.

What advantages does getting a prosthetic give over not getting a prosthetic?

Being able to walk, run or even play guitar are advantages that prosthetics allow people to do. When we speak about prosthetic legs, there is evidence that proves it has advantages over the normality. ”Patients expend less energy walking with prosthetic legs than when walking without prosthetic legs and using crutches.” said Doug Hewitt from Livestrong Foundation. These advantages could also include making the client feel as if they never lost a limb. “ A prosthesis is an artificial device that is used to replace a body part that may be missing, malfunctioning, or partially or completely damaged.” says Curl Francis from the University of St. Mary’s. This explains how getting prosthetics replaces body parts and is more beneficial if you want to continue doing everything you used to. There are more options when it comes to robotic body parts, such as robotic suits which let the paralyzed walk.

How does the robotic Robotic Exoskeleton work?

The Robotic Exoskeleton is a robotic suit from the hips and down that helps those who have paralyzed legs to walk once again, It is able to be controlled by humans and the controls on the crutches and also can be tracked through an app. “The suit returns movement to wearers’ hips and knees with small motors attached to standard orthotics. Wearers can control the movement of each leg and walk at up to 1.1 miles per hour by pushing buttons integrated into a pair of crutches.” said Signe Brewster from MIT Technology Review.This Robotic Exoskeleton is able to track the data that is being recorded off of the device and has eight hours of lasting power.Dmitry Itskov, an Internet entrepreneur who wants to help people live forever stated “A battery pack worn as a backpack powers the exoskeleton for up to eight hours. An app can be used to track the patient’s walking data.” Some injuries such as paralyzed legs are not curable and this robotic device allows them to not suffer their whole life without being able to walk. This may seem unbelievable but just like this device, there are many more such as a artificial heart and brain implants.

Why do scientist grow artificial hearts?

One of the reasons why scientist grow artificial hearts is because the number of people that die from heart problems is increasing every day. In order to help people with these diseases and shortage of life spans, scientist have build artificial hearts which replaces the human heart and works up 90% as the normal heart does. “Cardiovascular disease, which includes heart failure, is the number one cause of death, killing more people worldwide than all cancers combined.” stated Charles Okeke from SynCardia Systems, Arizona based company who commercialize their Total Artificial Heart Device. In fact, the number of heart donors is also decreasing day by day. According to the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, “about 4,000 people wait for a donor heart transplant on any given day, while the supply of approximately 2,300 donor hearts annually has been flat in the U.S. for over 20 years”. Knowing that heart donors are so low, scientist have created artificial hearts to supply for those who need heart transplants.

Works Cited

”Soft robot designed to mechanically pump failing hearts”. ​Design Engineering. Accessed January 19,2017. ​ http://www.design-engineering.com/soft-robot-cardiac-1004025664/

Slotnick E, Daniel. “When Is It O.K. to Replace Human Limbs With Technology?” ​The learning Network. May 12,2012. Accessed Jan 19,2017 https://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/05/16/when-is-it-okay-to-replace-human-limbs-with-technology/?_r=0

Alvarado, Fil. “New technology helps injured Fort Worth officer walk again”. ​Fox 4 News.Accessed January 23,2017. ​http://www.fox4news.com/news/231232374-story

Hotz Lee Robert. “Robotic Stingray Powered by Heart Cells From Rats; Harvard researchers announce advance in field trying to build better artificial human body parts.” ​Wall Street Journal. Accessed 07July 2017.​ Pro Quest http://search.proquest.com/news/docview/1802237405/727F59E8C38A448FPQ/9?accountid=42214

Manfredo, Atzori. “Effect of clinical parameters on the control of myoelectric robotic prosthetic hands.” Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development. Ebsco. 2014.09.02 Accessed February http://web.a.ebscohost.com.proxy.elm4you.org/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=6&sid=a59b9646-bb12-4102-b148-1df1e97606d0%40sessionmgr4006&hid=4104

“Will a robotic arm ever have the full functionality of a human limb?” Youtube. Uploaded by PBS Newshour, Accessed 2 February 2017 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x_zGiqV7Bmk&spfreload=10&scrlybrkr=c1b95a8c

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