What We Learned Mina Milosevic, Zack Forsyte, Navid Ghorbanali

All you need for a photogram is photo paper and objects of your choice. Prepare it by placing the objects in your desired pattern or design. Expose the paper under your enlarger for ten seconds at f/stop 2.8. Develop in D76 for 90 or more seconds, place in stop bath for 30 seconds, fixer for 3 minutes, wash for 5 minutes, and squigee and dry.
Pinhole Photography

Pinhole cameras are the simplest form of photography. To make one you need a light proof box like a shoe or phone box, an aluminum can, electric tape, black paper, and a pushpin. Cut a square in the center of the box, place a piece of aluminum over the hole and use the push pin to make a small puncture in the aluminum. Cut a piece of black to create a shutter over the lens.

This is an example of a pinhole camera image taken by photographer John Fobes.
Fast Shutter Speed

Fast shutter speed is used to freeze a moving object in a photo.

Slow Shutter Speed
Shallow Depth of Field (blurry background)
Deep Depth of Field (everything in focus)

Slow shutter speed is used to create motion and/or blur in photos.

3 Point Lighting
3 point lighting, primarily used for portrait shots, uses three different light configurations. Front/main light, back light, and a reflective board.


A picture is worth a thousand words, so more than one makes a story.
Processing Film

When you're done shooting your film, you need to load it into a developing canister. This must be done in the changing room because any light will expose and ruin your film. Start by using the can opener to open your film carrier. Once this is done roll the film onto a spindle. Then you must put the plug into the spindle to hold it together. Once this is done place it all into the developing canister and close the lid.

To develop your film, pop off the red lid and pour 10oz of D-76 mixture, 5oz water and 5oz D-76. Before developing, measure the temperature of the D-76 and choose your processing time according to the chart above the sink. After you're done developing, pour out the D-76 down the sink and pour in 10oz of Stop Bath (water). Then pour Stop Bath down sink and pour in 10oz of Fixer. DO NOT POUR FIXER DOWN THE SINK. Dispose of fixer in the fixer recycling jug. Open the canister and place the spindle in the hurricane wash. Before drying, place spindle in PhotoFlo.
After developing your film, squeegee off the liquid and hang to dry overnight.
When your film is dry, cut into slips and slide your film into a sleeve. Before you choose a photo to print, make a contact sheet by placing your film sleeve over photo paper and exposing it for 10 seconds under your enlarger to sample your film.
Place your film in the negative carrier for enlarger printing.
Preparing to Print
Before printing, grain focus on a scrap of photo paper to make sure your image is clear.
Printing a photo strip is used for gauging exposure time before printing your final product.
Contrast sheets are used to make the blacks blacker and the whites whiter in your photo.
You can use burn and dodge tools to lighten under exposed areas or darken over exposed areas.

Put your RC photo paper into a speed easel when printing to keep it in place.

Chemical Process
After exposing your photo paper to your image, soak in D-76 for 90 seconds or until desired results. Next, move your photo into the stop bath for 30 seconds to stop the image from developing further. Then place it in fixer for 3 minutes to fix the image so it does not fade over time. Finally, put your photo in the wash bath for 5 minutes to wash off excess chemicals.
Squeegee your photo to remove droplets of water. Then place it in the dryer.
Dry Mount
For dry mounting you need wax paper, mounting board, tacking iron, oven, and your photo. Start by tacking your photo to the wax paper. Next you tack the corners of the wax paper onto the mounting board. Then you need to place your photo in the oven for 3-5 minutes. Finally use a heavy book or similar weight so it drys flat.
Manually focus your camera using the lens.
Also found on the camera lens, aperture is used to control the depth of field in your photos.
Set your ISO to match the ISO of the film you are using. Adjust your shutter speed to the right setting for the amount of light you are shooting in. Use the red plus and minus signs when you look through your camera lens.

Load your film by opening the back of your camera and placing the film reel in the left side. Stretch the start of the film across and feed it into the spindle. Close the camera and click the button used to capture your photo until the film slide number hits one, and you're ready to shoot.

Thanks Led

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