One of the few buildings still in tact after the trechourous war.
Though the finances of reconstruction in the south won't be covered by the union, reconstruction of the broken country is beginning to take place. Since the North won the Civil War, slavery needs to be abolished, but because of the rocky relationship between the opposing sides, the North needs to keep a close eye on the Southeren states and make sure they obey the law. The southern states were in ruins because of the recent war that took place in the confedaerate states.
Two Presidental Reconstrustion Plans
President Lincolns plan for reconstruction was that at least 10% of each southern state had to swear an oath of loyalty to the U.S in order to be accepted back into the union. He wanted to put the country back together as soon as possible. Sadly, Lincoln couldn't put his plan into action because he has been assinated by John Wilkes Booth. The Congress said that since the southern states had succeeded in the first place they should be the ones to reapply. President Johnson made three requirements for the southern states to be excepted. The first part of the plan was that the ex confederate states had to acknowledge that the U.S will not be paying for the debt from the war in the south. Secondly each confederate state must nullify (to cancel) its act of secession. And finally, each state had to ratify (give formal consent, or make it officially valid) the thirteenth amendment, to abolish slavery.
Slavery Ends in Texas!
Several Generals of the Union have been commanded down to the south to restore order. Gordon Granger is one of the Generals commanding a Union force to Galveston so he can restore order in Texas. His first order of business was that he announced President Lincolns Emancipation Proclamation that all slaves are free. On June 19, 1865, all African Americans are free, recognizing the famous date as Juneteenth. Congress, concerned for the recently freed African Americans, created the Freeman's Bureau. The Freeman's Bureau is helping the recently freed people by issuing food, jobs, clothing, and eduction for school and to make a living.
New Texas governor appointed
Since the Southern states has no government and President Johnson doesn't want any southern supporter leading the state, he has appointed a new Texas governor, Andrew J. Hamilton. Since Hamilton wants to get Texas back in the Union, he calls the delegates to a constitutional convention. Most of these delegates supported the confederacy, some were part of the confederate army and others aren't pardoned by the president. These people also don't support freedom for African Americans and are reluctant to join the Union.
A New Constituition!
In the south instead of creating a new constituition, they simply revised the one they made before the civil war. First they nullified secession, added states war debt, and finally abolished slavery (the constitution does not state equal rights for African Americans.) When ex- Confederates took control they refused to nullify the thirteenth amendment (to outlaw slavery,) and the fourteenth amendment which was made to protect the rights of freedman. They now have recently made Black Codes, to ensure the limitation of freed African Americans ad their rights.
Congress Takes Control!
Careing a little too about the South, Congress has started to disagree with President Johnson. Congress thinks that President Johnsons plan is going too easy on the southerners, claiming that reconstruction isn't working. They aren't seeing any changes being made in the south what with black codes and hesitation to understand that they must obey the laws set by the northern states. The republicans in congress think they should take control of reconstruction, the public labeling them Radical Republicans. President Johnson resisted handing over reconstruction to the Congress, so they held a vote and it was 2/3 so the congress is officially in control of reconstruction!
Radical Reconstruction Begins!
Rumor has it that Congress Reconstructions plan is much harsher then President Lincolns and President Johnsons plan. They decided to divide the southern states into five districts, with certain requirements. First, the southerners must ratify the 14th amendment, secondly, they must ratify the 15th amendment, and lastly people will be required to take the iron clad oath. The iron Clad Oath allows people to have voting rights. It states that the individual pledging the oath has not (in any way shape or form) been in the confederate army or aided the confederacy voluntarily. Military districts are
Freedmen Get the Vote
The Texas governor, General Charles griffin who was appointed by south, Griffin has used the Freeman's bureau and the army to register freedman with the rights to vote! Now nearly 50,000 freedmen have been registered! The KKK is a group of white southerners. They attack Freedman and everyone who supports them and the movement for equal rights. The Ku Klux Klan hates carpet baggers and scallywags because they were white southerners and northerners who supported Reconstruction.