Modern Physics, Discover the World Dylin SToen

The 4 Fundamental forces:
Gravitational Force

Gravitational force: A force discovered by Issac Newton but was later modified by Albert Einstein. Albert Einstein suggest that gravity can't go faster than the speed of light. Gravity acts as a giant stretched out blanket that bends due to macro objects that has enough mass causing a gravitational pull. Albert Einstein also theorist that everything has a gravitational attraction between each other and this pull can be calculated using this calculation: Force = Gravity(Mass of the first object + Mass of the second object)/The distance of the two objects.onal Force


Electromagnetism: Discovered by Maxwell, Electromagnetism is the electromagnetic field that is produced by objects that are charged electrically. These charges include Radio waves, Infrared, Ultraviolet waves, and X rays are all electromagnetic fields in different frequencies and the electricity is produced when there is a change in the magnetic field. This fundamental force is one of the forces that operate on a micro scale and goes with the quantum physics calculation but when it is compared to its competitor, gravitational force, the two calculations for both forces should compare nicely but they both collide and don't match up correctly.

Weak Nuclear Force:

Weak Nuclear Force: Discovered by Ernest Rutherford in 1899. Weak Nuclear Force is one of the three forces operating on a micro scale and one of the 4 forces in the fundamental theory of forces. It is the second weakest force besides gravity and it is responsible for radioactivity. Like Electromagnetism, Weak Nuclear Force is one of the 3 forces that doesn't compare correctly with gravity and is one of the many questions of this universe. The weak Nuclear force is caused by radioactivity decay. This force is the essential force of nuclear fusion.

Strong Nuclear Force

Strong Nuclear Force, Discovered by James Chadwick, is the force that bonds the protons and neutrons together. This force is one of the three forces operating on a micro scale and one of the 4 forces in the fundamental theory of forces. This is one of the strongest forces that currently exist in the universe and is also another force that does not add up to the gravitational force.

General Relativity:

General Relativity: Discovered by Einstein, it is the bend in the space by a massive object that causes gravity. This is an image of the universe that's like a blanket and if there's a mass big enough added onto this blanket it can bend this blanket creating a gravitational pull between two objects which is how planets rotate around each other. This theory suggest that everything has a gravitational pull from each other even if the two objects are tiny and millions of miles away there's still a gravitational pull between the two objects even tho the gravitational pull is so small its practically not calculable. This theory suggest that the more massive the greater the dent in the sheet and gravity is from the "steepness" of the dent. It influences space and time. General Relativity mathematically does not work with Quantum Mechanics and there is a few questions that arise of General Relativity like, What causes the indentation in space-time around the masses?

Quantum Mechanics

Quantum Mechanics: Is the study of subatomic particles, this study includes the 3 micro scale fundamental forces. there's many theories that come with quantum mechanics. This study tries to bring general relativity to mathematically make it work with Quantum Mechanics but the best you can do, right now, with quantum mechanics is predict. quantum mechanics is made of chances. Order to align with general relativity, quantum mechanics suggest parallel universes that has all the possible outcomes happen on an atomic level. This theory explains why tings are the way they are on an atomic level. However, even with this theory in place there is currently no way to combine general relativity and quantum mechanics.


Unification: is the formulation of law that unifies everything in the universe with one master formula. This is what Einstein died trying to find out however, string theory is the closest attempt yet to unify general relativity and quantum mechanics but string theory is impossible to prove. So far there are over 20 numbers that unify everything but scientist are trying to unify that to one.

String Theory

String Theory: string theory is a theory that attempts to unify general relativity and quantum mechanics. String theory suggest a particle so small that it vibrates in the 10th dimension which unifies quantum mechanics and general relativity. Kinda like a string, the string is so tiny its wrapped up in a different dimension of space and time that are so infinitely small. Like a string. there are many different versions of string theory like closed and open strings so it is not 100% convincing to a lot mainly because it is so far not provable.

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