September 11th Terrorist Attack By elle Boyden

On September 11th, 2001, nineteen Islamic terrorists hijacked four airliners and successfully carried out a suicide attack against the United States.

Part 1:

Before September 11th: The Plot

The September 11th attacks were completed as a suicide mission by Islamic terrorists from Saudi Arabia and several other Arab nations

The attackers were reportedly financed by Osama Bin Laden, the leader of the militant Islamic Organization, Al-Queda. Bin Laden and his organization were allegedly acting in retaliation for America's support and involvement with various nations.

One of Bin Laden's associates in Afghanastan, Abu Walid al-Masr, shared that Bin Laden was convinced that America was a weak nation.

"He believed that the United States was much weaker than some of those around him thought" - Masri

Khalid Sheikh Mohammad was identified as the primary operational planner of the terrorist attacks. He received an education and college degree in the United States and moved back to Pakistan and later Afghanistan to wage jihad. Khalid Sheikh Muhammad supposedly had plans to blow up various American territories prior to 9/11.

Khalid Sheikh Mohammad met with Bin Laden in Tora Bora, Afghanistan. It was in this meeting when the proposal for the 2001 attacks were given. Khalid Sheikh Mohammad expressed interests in having planes crash into buildings in the United States.

The plan required that a group of men receive flying lessons and a willingness to crash a plane.

Al-Queda funded the entire operation so the plan would be successful and a regime change could be brought to the United States.

In 1999, Bin Laden began his search for individuals to carry out his plan. He selected Saudi citizens, as it'd be easy for them to receive US visas. Other selected men were Yemeni citizens, who's nationlaity made it more difficult to obtain a US visa. As a result, the Yemenis were assigned the Asia component of the plot.

Mohammad Atta was assigned to be the leader.

Atta met with Bin Laden several times after he was selected as the leader. The selection of the hijackers was made by Bin Laden and a man named Mohammed Atef. All of Bin Laden's team pledged loyalty to him and were instructed to enroll in flying school.

A letter from Mohammad Atta to various flying schools:

"Dear sir, we are a small group of young men from different Arab countries. Now we are living in Germany since a while for study purposes. We would like to start training for the career of airline professional pilots. In this field we haven't yet any knowledge but we are ready to undergo an intensive training program (up to ATP and eventually higher)." -Mohammad Atta

All of the men eventually obtained US visas

Part 2:

Final preparations

Three weeks before the attack, targets were assigned to four teams. Each team was assigned a different location. The United States Capital/The White House was called "The Faculty of Law". The Pentagon was named "The Faculty of Fine Arts". Atta disguised the name of the World Trade Center as "The Faculty of Town Planning".

Part 3:

The Attacks

At 8:45 am on Tuesday morning, both America and nations all over the world changed forever

On the morning of September 11th, each team of terrorists boarded four different Boeing 757 planes. Each of the planes was loaded with jet fuel for a long trip across the country.

American Airlines Flight 11 was the first to take off. The flight was scheduled to go from Boston to Los Angeles

United Flight 175 was the second to take off. This flight was planned to fly between Logan and LAX

American Airlines flight 77 was the third flight, headed from Washington DC to Los Angeles

United Airlines Flight 93 departed from Newark and was supposed to arrive in San Francisco later that day

Hijackers aboard Flight 11, including Mohammad Atta, crash into the North Tower of the World Trade Center at 8:45 am

At 9:03 am, Flight 157 came racing towards the South Tower of the World Trade Center. It was now evident that America was under attack

At 9:37 am, Flight 77 barreled into the western side of the Pentagon in Washington D.C.

At 9:59 am, the South Tower collapses, sending debri through the city of New York

Meanwhile, passengers on board of Flight 97 contact family members and become aware that they are a part of the mass terrorist attacks. As a result, the passengers attempt to retake the plane. Due to the resistance from passengers, the hijackers make a decision to crash the plane into a field in Pennsylvania.

At 10:28 am, the North Tower of the World Trade Center collapses

None of the passengers aboard the hijacked planes survived

In total, 2,977 people were killed in the attack

Part 4:

Affects of the Attack

The Semtember 11th terrorist attacks were one of the first large terrorist attacks on America. The attack caused a great amount of harm throughout the nation

September 11th 2001 is remembered as the worst event of the 2000s for many reasons

Economics

The United States lost billions of dollars due to the destruction of the World Trade Center, cost of all the damage, decline in airline travel, etc.

Increase in violence

Tension between the Middle East and US increased. The US began to plot how to retaliate from the attacks, causing more violence.

Launched in the wake of the September 11th terrorists attacks, the US has been fighting it's longest war in Afghanstsan. The war has been going on for 15 years.

Mourning over lost family

Many beloved wives, husbands, brothers and sisters died in 9/11. The event was extremely traumatic and will have a lasting impact on those who witnessed the event

Immigration has become difficult

Due to the lack of security the 9/11 terrorist attack were successful. Security has improved, consequently making immigration very difficult. It is extremely hard for tourists, students, and foreign nationals to receive a US visa.

American Psyche has been affected 

"Americans have changed since 9/11. In some ways -- whether it's further awareness of foreign threats or the idea that the U.S. is not completely safe -- Americans underwent an existential crisis." - IBTimes. The attacks have made Americans more fearful and conscious.

Images

http://www.factslides.com/s-9-11

http://www.businessinsider.com/haunting-photos-from-september-11th-attacks-2016-9

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohamed_Atta

http://www.nycgo.com/museums-galleries/9-11-memorial-museum

http://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/United-Airlines-Tests-New-Wingtip-Design-in-Quest-to-Cut-Fuel-Consumption.html

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khalid_Sheikh_Mohammed

http://intelligencebriefs.com/tag/al-qaeda/

http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/ten-years-ago-today-countdown-911/story?id=14191671

http://www.businessinsider.com/new-york-city-change-after-september-11th-2016-9

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/documents-show-osama-bin-laden-determined-to-strike-u-s/

http://thelineofsteel.weebly.com/analysis/the-seal-of-muhammad-flag

https://commons.m.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flight_paths_of_hijacked_planes-September_11_attacks.jpg

Created By
Elle Boyden
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Credits:

Created with images by bvi4092 - "View of the BMW bridges from the One World Trade Center"

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