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为什么中共国军方将美国视为真正的敌人 【中英对照翻译】

新闻来源:The National Interest

作者:Ian Easton

翻译/简评:Hemingway

校对:海阔天空

Page: 椰子哦耶

简评:

这篇报道,找到了中共军方将美国视为敌人白纸黑字的证据,却没有很好地回答题目中“为什么中共军方将美国视为真正的敌人”这个问题。

回答这个问题,就要回到中共政权的性质,和中国解放军的性质。共产党只能建立彻底的寄生性质的解构性政权。他们最善于运用阴谋、间谍活动过进行破坏,却无法在其控制的社会里真正建构、创造出新生事物。他们只是所控制社会的寄生虫和掠夺者,也必须有可以造血的社会有机体,给其提供养料,才能维持政权的存活。因此,我们才能理解,CCP以美国为其军事假想敌,并不是CCP战略选择库中的一个选项,而是唯一选项。

半个多世纪的掠夺已经快要到了灯枯油尽的地步——一胎政策让中共国劳动力锐减,新一代年轻人生育意愿低迷,半奴隶性质的三亿劳动力的“人口红利”即将消失殆尽。在作为CCP唯一可以用来诡辩的政权合法性来源的经济发展无法持续时,CCP必须要去更广阔的世界寻求可以掠夺以维持其统治的养料。因此扩大政权控制范围,进行军事扩张,是其唯一可以续命的选择。因为现行国际秩序,是二战以后,美国主导下建立起来的世界秩序,所以对外扩张,实际颠覆现有国际秩序的尝试,必然也只能以美国为假想敌。

另一方面来说,经济发展停滞,中共要凝聚党内力量,中共党魁又缺乏政治家的基本素质,因此也只能更加依赖 “大国崛起”的意识形态,来维护自己在党内的地位和统治。因此,任何打击其所为“民族自尊心”的“软弱”和“妥协”,都会成为党内敌人打击他的理由。因此,在外交上,中共党魁也没有斡旋的选择,“战狼外交”是其唯一的选择。这就加速了双方军事敌对的不断升级。

从技术层面来讲,本文提到了中共利用已退休或半退休的高级将领,以公开却非官方的方式,向民众灌输反美意识形态。但在受到批评时可以甩锅给“个人言论自由”。这种借刀杀人、操纵民意的伎俩,已经屡见不鲜。比如这次疫情中,在“追查病毒源头”的媒体舆论大战中,也是同样的操作。用自己在海外BGY的个人、媒体、杂志、甚至学术机构,放出不同的声音。一是试探民意,扔一块石头把水搅浑。一是一条路走不通,还有布局的其他道路,便可以轻易甩锅,以混淆世界人民的视听环境。只不过操作舞台,由墙内变为墙外而已。

因此,任何寄希望于中共能遵守任何文明社会规则,变成正常政权的认知,都是天真且脱离实际的。中共对美的敌对,是由其政权性质决定的。只有消灭共产党一种选择,才能真正解除西方社会的威胁。任何绥靖色彩的政策,都是养虎为患,将更大的难题丢给后人罢了。但若是等不到那一天,全世界已经被CCP渗透蚕食殆尽,那么也就是现代文明消亡之时。

在这现代文明生死存亡之际,更凸显出文贵先生领导的爆料革命的伟大。爆料革命不仅是被CCP奴役的十三亿中国人的“吹哨人”,也是全世界人民的时代“吹哨人”,为世界及时敲响了警钟。因此Gtv,Gnews,也在这个媒体已经不再报道真相的时代,肩负着“揭露真相”,“匡扶正道”的使命。

原文:

Why China's Military Sees America As The True Enemy

为什么中共国军方将美国视为真正的敌人

The reality is that PLA officers are trained to view the U.S. as an enemy, and they will plan and act accordingly.

实际的情况就是,中共党卫军军官接受的军事训练,便是以美国为假象敌。他们以此为前提和基础,计划并采取行动。

Here's What You Need To Remember: An initial assessment of Chinese military writings suggests that the PLA is engaged in a long-term, centrally-managed, strategic deception operation aimed at the United States' government and military. While propaganda materials create an image of a relatively benign and friendly China, internal PLA writings espouse a doctrine that is fundamentally offensive and hostile to American values and interests.

你需要记住:对中共国军事著作的初步评估表明,中共党卫军正在开展针对美国政府和军方的,长期的且集中部署的战略欺骗行动。尽管中共的宣传塑造了一个相对温和友好的中共国的形象,但中共党卫军内部的著作,则是拥护一种从根本上与美国的价值观和利益敌对的原则。

In December 2017, the U.S. Government published a new National Security Strategy. This remarkable document referred to the People's Republic of China (PRC) as a "revisionist power" that sought "to shape a world antithetical to U.S. values and interests." One month later, in January 2018, the Pentagon released the unclassified version of its National Defense Strategy, which stated that "China is a strategic competitor." Thanks to these documents, we now know how the American military―and the broader national security community―officially views China.

2017年12月,美国政府发布了新的《国家安全战略》。这份引人注目的文件称中华人民共和国(PRC)为“修正主义政权”,旨在“塑造一个与美国价值观和利益相相对立的世界”。一个月后的2018年1月,五角大楼发布了非机密版本的国防战略,其中指出“中共是战略竞争对手”。由于有了这些文件,我们现在得以知晓,美国军方以及更广泛的国家安全界如何看待中共。

This has been how the Chinese military, as an institution, views America. Indeed, many of the messages emanating from uniformed officials in Beijing appear mixed and even self-contradictory. The overall message they appear to be conveying is that China's armed forces have benign, peaceful intentions toward America, but they must sometimes react aggressively to destabilizing events created by others.

这就是中共军方作为一个机构看待美国的方式。的确,北京有许多穿制服的不同官员发出不同的信息。这些信息很混杂,甚至有时自相矛盾。他们似乎想传达的总体信息是:中共军队对美国怀有良性而和平的意图,但有时,他们也必须对其他国家造成的破坏稳定的事件做出积极回应。

An initial assessment of authoritative Chinese sources indicates that Beijing is exploiting increased international attention to (and engagement with) its military to engage in a well-orchestrated strategic deception campaign. While the Chinese military's external propaganda tends to deny or downplay strategic competition between the U.S. and China, its internal writings are often strident and anti-American. The reality is that the People's Liberation Army (PLA) sees the U.S. as an adversary and acts accordingly―while at the same time working to lull American officials into a false sense of complacency.

对中共权威消息来源的初步评估表明,北京正在利用国际上对其军备的更多关注(以及与其的接触)来精心策划战略欺骗行动。尽管中共军方的对外宣传往往会否定或淡化中美之间的战略竞争,但其内部的叙事笔墨,常常是尖刻且反美的。现实情况是,中共党卫军(PLA)将美国视为对手并以此采取相应动作——同时,也尽其所能误导美国官员感到安心而不是威胁。

China is not known for its transparency. In the most recent World Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders described China as "the planet's leading censor and press freedom predator," and gave Beijing a score of 176 out of 180, ranking it fifth from the bottom. Yet while it might be difficult to assess the validity of specific pieces of information appearing in Chinese propaganda, it is relatively easy to spot broad narratives and themes. China's state-run media might not tell its consumers everything that is going on at home and abroad, but it will tell them how they should interpret the events that are selected for coverage.

中共统治的透明度从来都是个问题。在最新的《世界新闻自由指数》(World Press Freedom Index)中,《无国界记者》(Reporters Without Borders)将中共描述为“地球上的主导审查者和新闻自由掠夺者”,并给北京打出了176分(总共180分),位居倒数第五。然而,尽管可能很难评估在中共宣传中出现的特定信息的有效性,但想要找到宽泛的叙事主题相对容易。不仅中共官媒体不会告诉人们国内外发生的一切,还会告诉他们如何解释和选择报道的事件。

Chinese military writings offer many insights. Unlike the United States, China does not have a professional national military. The PLA is the armed wing of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), a political organization that has exercised a monopoly on power in China since 1949. As such, PLA writings must pass through a rigid censorship process to make sure they are "correct" reflections of the CCP's official position before they can be published. This process ensures that communist party officials speak with one voice on all important issues.

中共的军事著作提供了许多观点。与美国不同,中共没有专业的国家军队。解放军是中国共产党(CCP)的武装力量,也就是党卫军。自1949年以来,中国共产党组织一直在中国行使权力的垄断。因此,解放军的著作都必须经过严格的审查程序,以确保它们能“正确”地反映出中共官方的立场,然后才能发表。这一过程可确保共产党官员在所有重要问题上保持一致。

Like any military, the PLA produces field manuals, technical studies, and other written materials that are not intended for outside consumption. Compared to propaganda writings, internal PLA materials are often more candid and detailed. What is the official PLA view of America? Is there a difference between how Chinese military sources portray the U.S. in public statements and internal ones? If so, what does this imply about Beijing's intentions?

像任何军队一样,中共党卫军也有内部的野战手册、技术研究和其他书面材料。与外部的宣传著作相比,中共党卫军的内部材料通常更为坦率和详尽。中共党卫军对美国的官方看法是什么?中共军方在公开声明的关于美国的报道,和在内部报道的内容之间有区别吗?如果有,这意味着北京有什么意图呢?

PLA Propaganda 中共党卫军的宣传

Authoritative PLA writings that are made available to external audiences will sometimes make unflattering remarks about the United States, but they avoid describing America as an adversary. They do not portray the U.S. as a strategic competitor, hostile force, or enemy. They generally use neutral or mild terms to describe U.S. actions. When they are critical, China's military writings will often refer to the U.S. indirectly, and they will not suggest the possibility of armed confrontation.

提给普通群众阅读的中共党卫军权威著作里,有时会对美国发表不切实际的评论,但却避免将美国描述为其对手。这些著作没有将美国描述为战略竞争对手,敌对力量或敌人。而是通常使用中性或温和的术语描述美国的行动。当它们变得更至关重要时,中共的军事著作经常会间接提及美国,而不是暗示武装冲突的可能性。

For example, the most recent white paper made available by China's defense ministry is entitled, "China's Policy for Security Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific." Published in January 2017, this report hints that problems between the U.S. and PRC might exist, but stresses the stable and constructive nature of bilateral security relations. Prior to that, "China's Military Strategy in 2014" made note of the U.S. rebalance to Asia strategy, but did not express any explicit concerns.

例如,中共国防部发布的最新白皮书标题为“中国的亚太安全合作政策”。该报告于2017年1月发布,暗示美国和中共之间可能存在问题,但又强调了双边安全关系的稳定性和建设性。在此之前,“ 2014年中国军事战略”中,提到了美国对亚洲战略的重新平衡,但没有表达任何明确的关切。

The 2012 iteration of China's defense white paper was a bit more transparent about how the PLA felt. In an indirect criticism of the U.S., it stated that "there are signs of increasing hegemonism, power politics, and neo-interventionism...some country has strengthened its Asia-Pacific military alliances, expanded its military presence in the region, and frequently makes the situation there tenser.”

关于中共党卫军的立场,2012年中共国防白皮书的内容则更加直白。在对美国的间接批评中,白皮书里说:“有迹象表明霸权主义、强权政治和新干涉主义正在增加……某些国家加强了其亚太军事同盟,扩大了在该地区的军事存在,并且经常在那里制造紧张局势。”

China's 2010 defense white paper, again, without mentioning the U.S. by name, stated that: "International military competition remains fierce...Some powers have worked out strategies for outer space, cyber space and the polar regions, developed means for prompt global strikes, accelerated development of missile defense systems, enhanced cyber operations capabilities to occupy new strategic commanding heights." China's 2008 defense white paper expressed similar concerns about the U.S., using almost the exact same indirect language.

中共国在其2010年国防白皮书中再次提到美国:“国际军事竞争仍然很激烈……一些大国已经在外层空间,网络空间和极地地区制定了战略,发展了即时全球定点打击系统,加快了导弹防御系统的发展,增强了网络作战能力,以占据新的战略制高点。”中共国2008年的国防白皮书也使用几乎完全相同的间接语言,表达了对美国的类似担忧。

In contrast to official statements made by China's defense ministry, retired or semi-retired PLA generals and admirals, many of whom have backgrounds in political warfare and intelligence, are openly hawkish and anti-American. A number of such individuals regularly appear as commentators on Chinese state-run television shows. Many also frequently publish strident editorials in state-run media and PLA publications. However, when challenged, Chinese authorities can credibly (if disingenuously) claim these are non-authoritative individuals whom are only expressing their own personal views.

与中共国国防部的官方声明的温和态度相反,许多已退休或半退休的解放军将军和海军上将,公开表达强硬和反美的态度,其中许多人具有政治战争和情报背景。许多这样的人经常在中共官方电视节目中担任评论员。许多人还经常在中共官方媒体和党卫军出版物上发表尖刻的社论。但是,当其言论受到挑战时,中共当局又可轻易地声称这些人是非权威人士,他们只是在自由地表达个人观点。

The Internal View 内部观点

Authoritative PLA writings show that the Chinese military's institutional view of the U.S. has far more in common with the hawkish commentators than the authors of China's defense white papers. A survey of PLA materials shows that internal Chinese military publications often refer to the U.S. as the "Strong Enemy" (强敌). This term is commonly used across a broad range of writings. Moreover, authoritative PLA publications take pains to paint America as a hostile force and frequently discuss the possibility of launching first strikes on the U.S. in wartime scenarios.

中共党卫军的权威著作表明,中共军方对美国的体制性观点与鹰派评论员更为接近,而不与国防白皮书相近。对中共党卫军资料的研究调查显示,中共国内的军事出版物常将美国称为“强敌”。该术语广泛用于各类著作。除此,解放军的权威出版物也竭力将美国描绘成敌对力量,并经常论证在战时情况下对美国发动第一次打击的可能性。

For example, the Liberation Army Press textbook Informatized Joint Operations, written by a team of officers at the Nanjing Army Command Academy in 2006, describes the "Strong Enemy's" strategy as "provocative, offensive, and expansionistic in nature." It states that America "ignores the rules of international relations...using gunboat diplomacy and relying on its own military power to serve as the world policeman, making up all kinds of rationales and excuses to push forward its hegemonic power politics all over the world." [3]

例如,中共党卫军在2006年出版的,由南京陆军指挥学院的一组人员编写的《信息化联合作战》教科书将“强敌的”战略描述为“挑衅、进攻和扩张主义”。其中还写道,美国“无视国际关系规则……利用炮舰外交,依靠自己的军事力量担任世界警察,以各种理由和借口在世界范围内推进其霸权政治。”

The book goes one to assert that the American military's wartime target list includes China's major cities, nuclear power plants, chemical plants, and dams, targets which would cause mass civilian casualties and wreck havoc across Chinese society. [4] The book then describes in detail how the PLA would defend against such attacks and defeat the "Strong Enemy" in war. [5]

该书声称美国军方的战时目标清单包括中共国的主要城市、核电站、化工厂和水坝,这些目标可能会导致大量平民伤亡并给中国社会造成严重破坏。然后,这本书详细描述了中共党卫军将如何抗击此类袭击并击败战争中的“强敌”。

According to the PLA Academy of Military Sciences' 2013 Course Book on Wartime Political Work, U.S. military intervention against China is "inevitable" (particularly in a local conflict against Taiwan) because "the Strong Enemy seeks world hegemony and works to contain China's rise." To counter this, the book discusses the application of media, legal, and psychological warfare against the "Strong Enemy." Should these operations fail to deter American intervention, the authors note the importance of conducting offensive strikes on U.S. aircraft carrier groups.

根据中共党卫军军事科学院的2013年战时政治工作教程,因为“强敌欲寻求世界霸权并努力遏制中共国的崛起。美国对中共国的军事干预是“不可避免的”(尤其是在针对台湾的局部冲突中), ”为了应对这个问题,该书讨论了针对“强敌”的媒体、法律和心理战的应用。若这些行动不能阻止美国的干预,作者也指出对美国航空母舰集团发动进攻的重要性。

In a similar vein, the 2014 PLA Air Force textbook Research on Air Force Strategy Problems dedicates over 60 pages to a discussion on the "threats" posed to China by the U.S. military. Notably, many military capabilities considered defensive by Americans, such as early warning satellites, surveillance radars, and missile defense systems, are listed in the threat category. The authors advocate dealing with the "American threat" by expanding China's stockpiles of intercontinental ballistic missiles, nuclear warheads, and theater missiles. The authors further advocate increasing the PLA's ability to carry out first strikes on U.S. port facilities, airbases, and missile defense sites using a combination of theater missiles, electronic attacks, and saboteurs.

同样,2014年中共党卫军空军教科书《空军战略问题研究》专篇讨论了美军对中共国构成的“威胁”,篇幅超过60页。值得注意的是,许多被美国人视为军事能力中的防御能力的部分,例如预警卫星、监视雷达和导弹防御系统,都在该教科书的威胁类别中。作者主张通过扩大中共国的洲际弹道导弹,核弹头和战区导弹库存来应对“美国威胁”。作者还主张提高中共党卫军使用战区导弹,电子攻击和破坏活动的组合,对美国港口设施,空军基地和导弹防御工地进行第一次打击的能力。

Implications 解读

While unconfirmed, an initial assessment of Chinese military writings suggests that the PLA is engaged in a long-term, centrally-managed, strategic deception operation aimed at the United States' government and military. While propaganda materials create an image of a relatively benign and friendly China, internal PLA writings espouse a doctrine that is fundamentally offensive and hostile to American values and interests. Irrespective of what is said by Chinese military propagandists in their defense white papers and public statements, the reality is that PLA officers are trained to view the U.S. as an enemy, and they will plan and act accordingly.

尽管未经证实,但我们对中共国军事著作的初步评估表明,中共党卫军正在开展针对美国政府和军方的、长期的、集中部署的战略欺骗行动。尽管中共的宣传塑造了一个相对温和友好的中共国的形象,但中共党卫军内部的著作,则是宣传一种从根本上对美国的价值观和利益进攻且敌对的原则。无论中共军方宣传人员在国防白皮书和公开声明中怎么说,现实情况都是,他们以美国为假想敌,训练中共党卫军的军官,也将基于此,制定计划和采取行动。

While the new U.S. national strategy reports are clear-eyed in their assessment of Beijing's intentions, so far little has been done which would indicate that Washington has actually reached a consensus on its China policy and is prepared to execute a long-term strategic competition. Much hard work will be required to turn wise words into action. In that sense, the PLA has a significant head start. It decided to become America's strategic competitor long ago ― and if the "Strong Enemy" didn't realize what was going on, for them, so much the better.

尽管新的美国国家战略报告对北京的意图进行了清晰的评估,但迄今为止几乎没有采取任何行动。但这也表明华盛顿实际已经在对共政策上达成了共识,并准备进行长期的战略竞争。但想将明见付诸行动,将需要付出大量的努力。从这个意义上说,中共党卫军具有重要的领先优势。他们在很久以前,就决定成为美国的战略竞争对手——但如果其“强大的敌人”甚至没有察觉正在发生什么就更好了。

编辑:【喜马拉雅战鹰团】