President Notes Kaif Rehmani

George Washington

Lots of the people saw him as an honest, intelligent, and steady leader. George Washington was a hero of the Revolution and was known for his ability to motivate and administer the ​army. Many people believed he should be the first U.S. president.

For two of his most important cabinet​ positions, Washington chose carefully. He​ picked Alexander Hamilton as secretary of the treasury and Henry Knox served as secretary of war. Judiciary

Judiciary Act of 1789 created three levels of federal courts and defined their powers and relationship to the state courts. It set up ​federal district courts and circuit courts of ​appeals. The president nominated candidates ​for federal judgeships. Those candidates then ​had to be approved or rejected by the Senate. ​

French Revolution was a rebellion of French people against their king in 1789. The French people overthrew their king and created ​a republican government. ​​Revolutionaries ​shocked many Americans by beheading King ​Louis XVI in January 1793 and Queen Marie-Antoinette later that year.

The complaints of western Pennsylvanians ​were at first expressed peacefully. But by 1794 ​fighting had broken out. It was then known as the Whiskey Rebellion. Farmers ​​lashed out against the tax on whiskey. Protesters refused to pay the tax. They even tarred ​and feathered tax collectors. Some called ​themselves the new Sons of Liberty. Washington personally led the army in military ​action against the rebellion. The ​army of about 13,000 men approached western ​Pennsylvania in November 1794. By this time ​most of the rebels had fled. The Whiskey Rebellion ended without a battle.

This Neutrality Proclamation ​stated that ​​the United States would not take sides with ​any European countries that were at war. ​Washington believed his plan was the safest ​for the long run, but not everyone agreed.

Jay’s Treaty ​settled the disputes ​​that had arisen between the United States and ​Great Britain in the early 1790s. The British ​would pay damages on seized American ships ​and abandon their forts on the northwestern ​frontier. The United States agreed to pay debts ​it owed the British. The treaty was unpopular and sparked ​violent protests.

In October 1795, Godoy agreed to ​Pinckney’s Treaty, which settled the border and trade disputes with Spain. Under the ​treaty Spain agreed to recognize the U.S. ​southern boundary as 31˚N latitude. Spain’s ​government also reopened the port at ​​New Orleans to American ships and gave them ​the right of deposit. Washington and ​most other Americans believed that Pinckney’s ​Treaty was a successful compromise. ​​

In 1796 Washington decided not to run for a ​third presidential term. He wrote that he was ​“tired of public life” and “devoutly [strongly] ​wished for retirement.” He also wanted to ​remind Americans that the people were the ​country’s true leaders. Washington wrote his ​Farewell Address. In it he spoke about what ​he believed were the greatest dangers to the ​American republic.

Washington warned against ​forming permanent ties with other countries because choosing sides could draw the ​United States into war. The nation would try ​to follow a course of non-involvement for ​another century, but some involvement with ​other governments seemed unavoidable. He also worried about growing political conflicts within the nation. Washington ​believed that disagreements between political ​​groups weakened government. Washington left office warning the nation to work out its differences and protect its independence. Washington also warned against too much public debt. He thought the government should try not to borrow money. He wanted future generations to be protected from debt.

John Adams

The Federalists chose John Adams and Thomas Pinckney as ​candidates. Adams knew he was not well liked in the South or the ​West, but he hoped people would support him after they thought ​about his years of loyal public service.

In 1798 the Federalist-controlled Congress passed four laws known together as the Alien and Sedition Acts. These laws were said to protect the United States, but the Federalists intended them to crush opposition to war. The most controversial was the Sedition Act, which forbade anyone from publishing or voicing criticism of the federal government. In effect, this cancelled basic protections of freedom of speech and freedom of the press.

In the presidential election of 1800, Federalists John Adams and Charles C. Pinckney ran against Democratic-Republicans Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr. The problems with the voting system led Congress to propose the Twelfth Amendment. This amendment created a separate ballot for president and vice president.

Adams described the French terms, substituting the letters X, Y, and Z for the names of the French agents. Upon hearing the disgraceful news, Federalists in Congress called for war with France. The XYZ affair, as the French demand for a bribe came to be called, outraged the American public.

Madbury v. Madison is a case that helped establish the Supreme Court's power to check the power of the other branches of government.

Thomas Jefferson

​Jefferson lowered military spending and reduced the size of the army. The navy was cut to seven active ships. Jefferson and Gallatin hoped that saving this money would allow the government to repay the national debt. Jefferson also asked Gallatin to find ways to get rid of domestic taxes, like the tax on whiskey. He believed that the primary functions of the federal government were to protect the nation from foreign threats, deliver the mail, and collect customs duties. Jefferson did recognize that some of the Federalist policies—such as the creation of the Bank of the United States—should be kept.

Federalists argued, Jefferson’s interest in science and philosophy proved that he wanted to destroy organized religion. Adams’s supporters claimed that Jefferson was a pro-French radical. Put Jefferson in office, they warned, and the violence and chaos of the French Revolution would surely follow in the United States.

In May 1804 the Lewis and Clark expedition began its long journey to explore the Louisiana Purchase. Lewis and Clark had not found a river route ​across the West to the Pacific Ocean, but they ​had learned much about western lands and ​paths across the Rockies. The explorers also ​established contact with many Native American groups and collected much valuable information about western plants and animals.

Jefferson, who had easily won re-election ​in 1804, supported an embargo. At his urging, ​in late 1807 Congress passed the Embargo Act. The law essentially banned trade with all foreign countries. American ships could not ​sail to foreign ports. American ports were also ​closed to British ships. Congress hoped that the ​embargo would punish Britain and France and ​protect American merchant ships from capture. In 1809 Congress tried to revive the nation’s ​trade by replacing the unpopular act with the ​Non-Intercourse Act. ​This new law banned ​trade only with Britain, France, and their ​colonies. It also stated that the United States ​would resume trading with the first side that ​stopped violating U.S. neutrality. In time, ​however, the law was no more successful than ​the Embargo Act.​​

Louisiana Purchase

Settlers in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio depended upon the Mississippi and Ohio rivers to move their products to eastern markets.

Napoléon’s strategy was to use the French colony of Haiti, in the Caribbean, as a supply base. From there he could send troops to Louisiana. However, enslaved Africans had revolted and freed themselves from French rule. Napoléon sent troops to try to regain control of the island, but they were defeated in 1802. Americans didn't want him to do that because they wouldn't be able to settle. If Napoleon closed the port to American goods, farmers would have no way to get their crops to market.

The Louisiana Purchase was the deal made on April 30, 2016. Napoleon knew that he might lose Louisiana to the British. He didn't need to raise food any more for his slaves in Haiti.

Double the country cheaply. Secure the free use of the Mississippi. Hard to govern a large piece of land. Some Easterners thought they would lose power in Congress.

James Madison
July 1812
September 1813
August 1814
December 1814
January 1815
Treaty of Ghent (Ended War of 1812)

The effects of the War of 1812 were​ that the war produced feelings of patriotism in Americans for ​having stood up to the mighty British. Some ​even called it the second war independence. The war also broke the power of many ​Native American groups. During the war, ​American manufacturers produced more to ​replace goods that could not be imported. ​When the war ended and trade resumed, ​American manufacturing grew even more as ​the economy revived. Finally, people began ​to see that the federal government needed a ​national bank in order to finance wars and ​other emergencies. ​​

Marbury v. Madison was a case that helped establish the Supreme Court’s power to check the power of the other branches of government.

James Monroe

James Monroe sent out troops to capture Florida. General Andrew Jackson led the arm. When he went he captured the Seminole Indian raiders and took over Spain's main military posts. Spain felt threatened so they made the Adam-Onis Treaty. That gave all of East Florida and 5 million dollars for Texas Territory.

Mexico soon declared independence from Spain. Monroe soon got worried that European countries would try to take over the newly opened Latin land and Russia might try to get the north-eastern land. So Monroe and Samuel Adams made a document named Monroe Doctrine that is warning European powers not to interfere with the Americas.

Henry Clay was strongly with the American System which stated to be economically self-sufficient. He agreed and wanted the money from protective tariffs. He wanted to build new roads and canals. These improvements would unite the country a lot because it would make trading across the country easier. The Erie Canal was a canal that ran from Albany to Buffalo, NY. The Erie Canal allowed goods and people to move between towns on Lake Erie and New York and the East Coast. It's success served as an incentive for a canal;-building boom across the country.

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