Effective managers who get employees to put forth maximum effort know how and why those employees are motivated and tailor motivational practices to satisfy their needs and wants.
The process by which a person's efforts are energized, directed, and sustained toward attaining a goal.
Motivation is not a personality trait.
This definition has three elements:
a measure of intensity, drive, and vigor
Effort that is directed toward, and consistent with organizational goals is the kind of effort we want from employees.
We want employees to persist in putting forth effort to achieve these goals.
Vivid and unusual titles shows employees that their efforts aren't plain and ordinary, but are appreciated.
EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
A. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
B. McGregor's Theories X and Y
C. Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory
D. McClelland's Three Needs Theory
It wasn't the nicest car. It wasn't the prettiest car. But boy did my overwhelming feeling of dread go from that to enlightenment. The 80-hour weeks we worked after that never meant anything. It was give and take. I was giving and the company was definitely giving back.
MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY
Managers using Maslow's hierarchy to motivate employees do things to satisfy employees' needs. But the theory also says that once a need is substantially satisfied, an individual is no longer motivated to satisfy that need.
MCGREGOR'S THEORY X AND Y
- They are lazy and dislike work
- Require close supervision and control
- Lack ambition without incentives
- Avoid responsibility
- Only work through threats and punishment
- Have personal goals that go against organization goals
- Their creativity and imagination are not used for work
- Self-motivated and self-controlled
- Treat work as a natural and normal part of life
- Initiate their own learning
- Accept responsibility and commit to organization objectives
- Appreciate and respond to recognition and encouragement
- Enjoy solving problems
- Are demotivated when their talents are not used
HERZBERG'S TWO-FACTOR THEORY
THREE NEEDS THEORY
Need for Achievement (nAch), which is the drive to succeed and excel in relation to a set of standards
People with a high need for achievement are striving for personal achievement rather than for trappings and rewards of success.
High achievers don't necessarily lead to good managers, especially in large organizations. Tha
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
CONTEMPORARY THEORIES IN MOTIVATION
CURRENT ISSUES IN MOTIVATION
MOTIVATING IN TOUGH ECONOMIC CIRCUMSTANCES
Managers came to realize that in an uncertain economy they had to be creative in keeping their employees' efforts energized, directed, and sustained toward achieving goals.
- holding meetings with employees to keep the lines of communication open and to get their input on issues;
- establishing a common goal, such as maintaining excellent customer service, to keep everyone focused;
- creating a community feel so employees could see that managers cared about them and their work;
- and giving employees opportunities to continue to learn and grow.
- And encouraging words always went a long way.
Managing Cross-Cultural Motivating Challenges
The most blatant pro-American characteristic in these theories is the strong emphasis on individualism and achievement. Both goal-setting and expectancy theories emphasize goal accomplishment as well as rational and individual thought.