Projection mapping is very similar to what normal projectors do as they project an image and blow it up to make it as large as you would like however projection mapping does not require a white or even a flat surface, this is useful as you are able to use projectors without the need for many special parameters i.e. dark room with a white surface to project it on. Do you need a special piece of Software/Hardware? yes you will need a special piece of software to accomplish this task however it works on most projectors, one of the pieces of software that you could use is called BLAM! and is an add on for blender 3D. it allows the user to project and image around an object to wrap around it, this is useful for places like museums, car shows, art galleries.
I think that this technology, when it really takes off and is implemented as best it can can be extremely useful as a sort of Augmented reality tech, it is already used very widely on landmarks such as the disney lands castle on special occasions, the eiffel tower to commemorate certain events in the years, so yes this tech needs some work to make it more accessible but it could be very useful.
In future i would like it used by decorators for houses to show what the house would look like if it were painted a certain colour or if they put some wallpaper, this would avoid the awkward moment when you finish having your house decorated and end up not liking the finished product. it could also be used at car dealerships instead of you looking online at pictures of the different colours of cars they could get the one they have and just project the colour/pattern onto it so it would be easier to tell what it is going to look like
virtual reality is a computer technology where you wear a headset that enables you to control the camera with your head movement s so you become more immersed in the experience, you can also get with the more expensive ones cameras which are off set so they make a grid which you can actually walk around in and interact with certain things in the VR world. although very expensive at the moment there are budget friendly Virtual reality headsets which use your phone to view videos or play basic games due to the limited functions of a phone you are limited to poor graphics and is not as immersive as the HTC Vive which uses the cameras as stated above to immerse you as much as possible.
I really think that this technology is amazing and as long as the technology catches up with the ideas people have we will see a world where VR is common place for anything and everything from viewing houses to looking back in time through old pictures digitalised into a 3D workspace, there is however a lot of room for improvement as it is a fairly knew technology even though the 1st VR rollercoaster has already been built and was open to the public back in march 2016.
the real world applications which this could help is too many to count from drawing sculptures before they are made to being immersed in a sci-fi adventure in a game. i would like VR to evolve someday to make films that is similar to the go pro films you see nowadays but they include you and if you don't look and spot things in a horror film you will quickly be killed and the film will switch to a different characters point of view, this would be very cool to see as it wouldn't be that hard to implement the technology is pretty much there as it is we just need for it to come don to a more reasonable price like what the Playstation VR headset is, £349 (correct at time of writing).
Microcontollers are a widely used technology and are used in everything from washing machines to cars, they can be programmed to perform simple tasks such as switching a light on or changing its colour. the advantages of using Microcontrollers is that they are a lot smaller than standard circuits which makes then use much less power, also they are incredibly flexible as they can be reprogrammed as many times as you like to perform different actions, however they are quite a bit more expensive than your standard circuits as they require smaller and more efficient parts to run.
i feel this technology is quite useful and can be used in a variety of ways in the real world. i would like to see this implemented in a way that can detect chemicals in drinks or even make sure that you are being served a non alcoholic or alcoholic drink by detecting the alcohol content in the drinks.