Dred Scott was a slave who's master took him with him to a free state. Dred Scott sued because he thought since he was in a free state he should be free. The Supreme Court ruled that he was not free and that no slave can become an US citizen.
The Emancipation Proclamation-1863
President Lincoln gave an order called the Emancipation Proclamation. It declared that slaves will be free in the Confederate States, but the Union (Lincoln) had no power of the Confederate States. This Proclamation was not effective.
The 13th amendment banned any form of slavery. Since 27 out of 36 states voted for this amendment it got passed.
The 14th Amendment allowed any person to become an US citizen.
The 15th Amendment allowed any man of any race to vote.
The Supreme Court ruled that segregation is okay as long as black Americans are given equal accommodations as others. This meant that there would be separate water fountains, medical care, and even public schools for black Americans.
Brown vs. Board of Education-1954
For this case the Supreme Court ruled that segregated school were unconstitutional. this law desegregated schools.
Montgomery Bus Boycott-1955
The Montgomery Bus Boycott happened after Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man. The Montgomery Bus Boycott was that African American refused to ride the city buses. It lasted for 13 months.
Since schools were not allowed to be segregated anymore, 9 African American students tried to go to Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. They were blocked by the US marshals because the Arkansas governor did not want them to attend the school. President Eisenhower ruled over the governor that they may attend Central High School.
In Greensboro, North Carolina, four African American College student sat down at a counter of a restaurant when only white people were allowed. People spit on them, cured them, and refused to serve them but they still sat peacefully at the counter. This became a popular non-violence protest method through out the South.
Ruby Bridges was a first grade who attended a previously all white elementary school. Her and her mom were escorted by US marshals to the school. Even though some parents pulled their kids out of the school Ruby still Ruby attended and eventually graduated High School and College.
Freedom Riders were people of many races who believed segregation was wrong. They rode buses to segregated parts of the South.
James Meredith applied to Ole Miss and got accepted, but once the college knew his race they declined him. The Supreme Court ruled that he could attend the college. He graduated with a degree in political science.
I have a Dream, speech-1963
On August 28th, 1963 Martin Luther King Jr. gave the "I Have A Dream", speech at the Lincoln Memorial, in Washington DC. About 250,000 people showed up. It was part of the March on Washington to end racism.