Rivalry in the Northwest.
The Oregon Country was a huge area located north of California, between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
The Oregon Country included all of what are now Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, plus parts of Montana and Wyoming.
Many Americans wanted control of Oregon in order to gain access to the Pacific Ocean.
John Quincy Adams got Spain to approve the Adams-Onis Treaty.
Mountain Men In Oregon
The first people to take up the challenge of living in the Oregon Country, were fur traders.
The fur merchants traded with the Native Americans, before anyone else.
Over time, Mountain Men had to do more than just trapping.
What did America gain from the Adams-Onis Treaty?-
They set the limits of their territory at what is now California's northern border and to give up all claims to Oregon.
Oregon and Manifest Destiny - Marcus and Narcissa Whitman.
In the 1830s, Americas began traveling to the Oregon Country to settle.
Among the first settlers in Oregon Country were Dr. Marcus Whitman and Narcissa Whitman.
Along the Oregon Trail
The Whitman massacre, did little to stop the flood of pioneers on their way to Oregon.
Many Americans took the trail, so they could have fertile land and it was driven by hard economic times.
There was even emigrants who left their country to go to Oregon.
America Seeks Its Manifest Destiny
Many Americans believed that their nation's mission should be to serve as a model of freedom and democracy.
Their visions changed in the 1800s. Then many people began to think that their mission was to spread freedom by settling the entire continent.
Fifty- Four Forty or Fight
Many Americans wanted the United States to take over the entire Oregon area.
James K. Polk supported their want to take over Oregon.
Polk's opponent Henry Clay did not agree with the ideas to take over Oregon.
How did Polk's views differ from Clay's in the 1844 election? -
They thought that the border of Oregon should have different latitudes.
How did Florida become a state?
Florida become a state when Spain transferred Florida to the United States.
Tallahassee became the territorial capital in 1824. The major cities were St. Augustine and Pensacola, and the capital was located in between the two. Less than 8,000 people lived in the territory.
The Territory Grows.
There were reportedly 48,000 people lived in Florida in 1837. Officials took a vote see if people in Florida wanted to make Florida a state.
Statehood for Florida
Iowa finally emerged as a candidate to be a state.
What caused the population of Florida to grow?
There were many enslaved people.
In 1821 Mexico won independence over Spain. The Non Native American population at the time in Texas was only 3,000. Tejanos were Mexicans who claimed Texas as their home.
There was only 180 Texan soldiers to take on Santa Ann's army of several thousand. Davy Crockett was one of the leaders of the Texan army. For 13 days the Alamo defenders kept Santa Ann at bay with rifle fire.
Texas Declares it's Independence
Tejanos were unhappy with the Mexican rule over Texas. The Texan leaders set up a temporary government.
The Lone Star Republic
In September 1836, Sam Houston was elected as the president of Texas. Mirabeau Lamar was the vice president.
Texas Becomes a State
Many Texans wanted to join the United States. John Tyler who was president in 1841, supported Texas annexation.
Why did it take a long time for the United States to annex Texas?
Slavery, and war between Mexico.
How did the Santa Fe trail benefit the New Mexico?
It was much better than the other trails that were in the dry and rugged area.
The New Mexico Territory.
In the 1800's New Mexico was located between Texas and California.
How did William Becknell influence the American settlement of New Mexico?
He made the Santa Fe Trail.
California's Spanish Culture.
Spanish explorers and missionaries from Mexico settled California in the 1700's. The missions aimed to convert Native Americans to Christianity and the Spanish way of life.
James K. Polk was the president at the time. James K. Polk wanted to get California and New Mexico territories from Mexico. Polk was ready to go to war to get these territories.
A War Plan
James K. Polk had three goals to defeat Mexico. They would drive the Mexican forces out of Texas, then seize New Mexico and California, and then they would advance into Mexico.
American settlers began an uprising in Northern California even before war had started. On June 14, 1846, Americans declared that California was independent.
Mexico's leaders signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Mexico also gave the United States more than 500,000 miles of land.
What did the Americans gain form the Mexican War?
They got the California Territory.
How did the discovery of gold help California?
The population at the time got much larger.
California Gold Rush.
When gold was discovered at Sutter's mill in 1848, people from all over the world traveled to California in search of riches.k The people who arrived in 1849 were called forty-niners.
After the war with Mexico and California it made Californios American citizens.
The Life of a Forty-Niner.
In the Gold Rush, new communities were built. Towns were made very quickly.
Gold Rush Society.
Mining camps contained men of all backgrounds but few women.
Economic and Political Progress.
While the Gold Rush was transforming, change was also happening in Utah.
How did the California Gold Rush lead to the expansion of cities?
Vigilantes formed committees to protect themselves.
A Religious Refuge in Utah.
Mormons were were building a new community.
The Mormons move on.
Joseph Smith was the founder of the Mormon Church. Smith said he received visions to build the church. He began preaching Mormon ideas in 1830.
A Haven in the desert.
The Mormon migration began in 1846. About 12,000 Mormons made the trek in the largest single migration in American history. The Mormons route became became known as the Mormon Trail.
Why did the Mormons have to keep moving from one place to another?
They suffered persecution.