HIV/Aids in Africa aukevia, austin, lucero, darrell

HIV/Aids

  • HIV causes AIDS and interferes with the body's ability to fight infections. Aids was first recognized in North America in the early 1980s. It is caused by a virus known as HIV and has become a worldwide epidemic.
  • Africa has the most serious HIV and AIDS epidemic in the world. In 2013, an estimated 24.7 million people were living with HIV, accounting for 71% of the global total. Africa is the worst affected region and is widely regarded as the 'epicentre' of the global HIV epidemic.
  • Africa has the largest epidemic of any country - 5.9 million people are living with HIV. The majority of new HIV infections in Africa occur in adults over the age of 25. HIV mostly affects young women. More than 4 in 10 new infections among women are in young women aged 15-24. Symptoms are Fever, Headache, Fatigue, Swollen lymph nodes (lymph glands), Sore throat, and Rash.

Using Punnet sqaure (Monohybrid) to determine genotype and phenotype.

  • A Monohybrid cross is one that involves only one trait, an example could be plants. Tall plants are dominant to smaller plants. Which means an upper case letter is used for the tall while a lower case is used for the smaller.
  • The genotype must be "Tt", since smaller plants are recessive to tall the only genotype that can be give to the smaller plant is "tt".

Karyotypes and Pedigree charts

  • Karyotypes are mainly used to show each type of chromosomes. Karyotypes assist chromosomes abnormalities by how there is 23 pairs of chromosomes making 46 in total. Chromosomal abnormalities occur when there is a defect in a chromosome.
  • Pedigree is a document which is used to record ancestry like an individual family tree with traits and genes that control it and are inherited within a family. Pedigree diagram of family relationship of families tat uses symbols to represent people and lines to represent genetic relationships.

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells

  • Prokaryotes were the only form of life on Earth for millions of years. They are simple cells that are single cell organisms or unicellular. There are two types of bacteria found in this cell Archea which is the oldest bacteria and extremophiles, they live in extreme environments that are hot/cold, dry/wet, high/low ph and no air.
  • Eukaryotes cells are multicellular organisms that contain membrane bound organelles like the nucleus when Prokaryotes don't. They are much larger and younger and have only been on Earth for 2.7 billion years. Eukaryotic organelles have organized interior compartments that are enclosed by lipid membranes.

How the form of unicellular organisms help them survive.

  • Unicellular organisms has different types of functions based on the organisms. They typically synthesize nutrients necessarily for the cell to survive. The organism must go through the whole life process in order for the cell to function and reproduction itself.
  • Scientists believe that unicellular organisms were the first form of life. They have been on Earth for 3.8 billion years and adapted within that period of time. Most unicellular organisms are microscopic.

Interepet how limited resources, diseases, birth/death rates impact carrying capacities and population sizes within an ecosystem

  • Limited resources within an ecosystem will affect the ecosystems population by limiting them in the amount of resources they can receive. If the population in that ecosystem were to supply surpass the carrying capacity then it will leave individuals without resources that's causing an decrease in that ecosystem population.

Causes of DNA mutation

  • Most mutations are naturally occurring. Most mutations are caused when cells divide and make a copy of its DNA and the copy is not quite perfect this is what causes a mutation.
  • Also DNA mutations can be caused by exposure to certain chemicals or radiation. This can cause DNA to be broken down and is not natural. And when your cell repairs its DNA it might not repair perfectly causing a mutation.

Citations

  • Biology Facts. (n.d.). Retrieved February 27, 2017, from http://biologyfunfacts.weebly.com/cell-organelles.html
  • Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell. (n.d.). Retrieved February 27, 2017, from Diffen website: http://biologyfunfacts.weebly.com/cell-organelles.html
  • Single Celled Organisms. (2017). Retrieved February 27, 2017, from UNC TV Learning Media webns
  • "HIV and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa Regional Overview." AVERT. N.p., 01 May 2015. Web. 31 Mar. 2017. <https://www.avert.org/professionals/hiv-around-world/sub-saharan-africa/overview>.

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Created with images by CDC Global Health - "PEPFAR, CDC, and Siemens Health Collaborate to Launch “Stronger Together,” a New 5-year, $15M Public-Private Partnership"

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